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Urban Issues in Afghanistan

Regeneration and inclusive growth

South Asia Region Urbanization Platform
20th 21st, March 2012

Colombo, Sri Lanka

Presentation of Afghan Team by: Architect/Urban designer, Wahid A. Ahad technical Deputy Mayor of Kabul

Urban regeneration and inclusive growth


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Introduction to Afghanistan Urban policies and planning Urban governance Infra-structure and services and housing Revenue generation Way forward
Employment agriculture : 38% industry : 24% services : 38%
Unemployment: 40% Child labor total: 31% Population below poverty line: 53% GDP : 347 $ (WB)

Area: 647,500 Sq Km
Border countries: China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan Total Pop. 29,863,000

Presented By : Arch. Wahid A. Ahad Deputy Mayor of Kabul. 2012

52% of total urban population settled in Kabul 48% in other 147 urban centers 70% of the Kabul city is built unplanned population growth rate for Kabul 4-5%, cities like Mazar, Jalalabad, Hirat, Kandahar 3-4% and for other cities 2.58% Different scale of 148 cities Kabul and the majors cities have increase their population from 3 to 5 times

Urban Regeneration and Inclusive growth

Municipalities can not cope with the situation and people are in difficult conditions in informal settlements Planned and unplanned settlements

Land grabbers, public and private

Land public, private

People Private sector and urban poor

Public participation will bring inclusiveness

Build their own houses and create service delivery problems

Urban poor

Urban Regeneration and inclusiveness in Afghanistan

Central Government

Policies and Laws ANDS

People migrants

Local Government

Rule Regulations and District level planning

They cause the informal settlements

Urban policies and planning

A land policy was developed in 2008 to respond to the situation of land grabbing and include the informal settlements, upgrading issues and land tenure regularization. MUDA is responsible for making policies for all urban sector and they are working on housing policy and urban transportation policy Participatory planning in urban sector have been accepted to be followed in Master plans, detailed plans, upgrading plans and urban renewal plans. To respect inclusiveness. Municipal law was reviewed by the KM and IDLG and have been submitted for the judiciary authorities.

Urban governance
Administrative: As per the constitution all mayors have to be elected. Suras at city level, District level and Gozar level has to be in place Participatory planning in urban sector have been accepted to be followed in Master plans, detailed plans, upgrading plans and urban renewal plans. To respect inclusiveness. Rahman Mina
Old City Urban planning system in Afghanistan: All regional and city level plans for urban development has to be prepared by MUDA Alauddin under the light of the ANDS.

All detailed plans for the district level development are to be made by the local governments/municipal corporations and approved by MUDA except for the capital Kabul which it is prepared and approved by KM.

Rapid urbanization, due to pressure from both internal migrants & returnees Growing demand for housing and land for settlement

Infra-structure and services

Lack of coherence in official urban policy

Weak central institutions that remain resistant to reform Impunity of action by the powerful Densification of informal settlements, despite their precarious legal status Growing disparities in access to basic public services

Up to 70% informally housed (WB) 2004-2005 Legal & regul. violation, has prevented a housing crisis of vast proportions The poor are increasingly dependent on their own resources The majority are housed in self-built accommodation This represent a value in fixed capital of US$ 2.5 billion not including land value (WB)

We can also observe:

Not only new construction, but also rehabilitation of existing housing stock Productive use of vacant land in informal settlements Significant contribution to the urban economy Reduced dependence on government KURP and Urban Solidarity Program as well as KSP have the support of the WB and Gov.

Informal settlements causes:

Rising urban poverty as poor in-migrants settle in the city Poor living conditions for the majority Insecurity of tenure limiting investment in informal settlements Widespread expectation that the state is a provider of shelter Rising cost of land Evidence of land-grabbing Planning & building regulations are widely ignored Poor construction and use of materials

Social & economic marginalization of the old city Degradation of properties, due to lack of investment Lack of effective legal framework for protection & regeneration of the old city Lack of appreciation of the value of nonmonumental urban heritage

Asheqan wa Arefan

Baghe Ali Mardaan

Asheqan wa Arefan

Shor Bazaar

Infra-structure and services Greenery and parks in Kabul

KM has developed 13 parks planted about 1,600,000 trees last 2 years Greenery is a critical need for the Citys environment and we have planned to plant 1,000,000 trees in 2012 in Kabul city. KM wants to plant trees on the mountain slopes and we have started it in 2011

Infra-structure and services Roads and bridges Improvements

World Bank have helped KM with 12.5 Km. of construction of city roads, design of 63 Km. and soon we expect that the construction of the 63 Km designed road will come as the second phase of KURIP project.

WB has helped the upgrading of Kabul city through KURP project which covered about 600 Ha of the planned and un-planned areas.
We need proper roads for 600,000. vehicles in Kabul The air in Kabul city is not fit for breathing. 200 Km of city roads and 6 bridges were built

Illegal high-rise buildings in Kabul and risks

survey of 3 districts in Kabul showed that: 50% of the high-rise are not registered KM and do not have a construction permit.

The risk they are posing are as follows Resistance to 8 degrees earthquakes on Richter scale Fire fighting arrangements Proper W/S heating/cooling, ventilation & proper sewerage system Emergency exit systems and enough parking places How is the solid waste collection system

They have not paid their taxes and not followed the rules

Revenue Generation:
Total 33 Provincial Municipal Budget has increased 71% (From USD 65 million to USD 112 million last year) Kabul Municipality has increased from 30 million to 54 million (80%) Key resource increase has been from property tax collection of Safayee from Informal Settlements, bill boards, renting of properties New sources needs to be identified and increased with the help of regional experiences to a acceptable level Efforts has been there to increase the resources in a sustainable manner to provide better services to the citizens

Way forward:
Development of better policies and planning Improve Local Governance i.e. Conducting Municipal Elections (mayor and municipal council), public participation Capacity Development Increase municipal revenue Increase better service delivery Better coordination with relevant government entities and donors

All the above needs donors support and regional cooperation

Thank You