TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS (TA

)

KEY POINTS
 INTRODUCTION  EGO STATES  TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS  STROKES  TIME STRUCTURING  LIFE POSITIONS  SCRIPT  GAMES

INTRODUCTION
Eric Berne ( Eric Lennard Bernstein) 1910- 1970 Psychiatrist Trained in Psychoanalysis

Influences on TA
- Alfred Adler - Carl Rogers - Eric Erikson - Fairy tales - Humanistic Approach - Psychoanalysis( Freud)

APPLICATION OF TA
1. To understand and improve your communication (transactions) and that of others. 2. To avoid playing “games”. 3. To understand the script that you have developed and change it if not appropriate. 4. To understand your life positions. 5. To analyse your self and your personality.

MEANING
 TRANSACTION: It is defined as a unit of human communication or as a stimulus- response connection between two people’s ego states. Transaction can be verbal or non verbal.

According to Eric Berne-

“ People are born prince and princess and then their parents kiss them and turn them in to frogs”

EGO STATES Personality is composed of 3 Ego states: 'Taught' concept of life 1. The Parent P 2. The Adult 3. The Child A 'Thought' concept of life

C

‘Feel' concept of life

COM M

ON M

AN

PA

T EN R

AD UL T

CHILD

THE PARENT
          Giving Advice Criticising Discipline Nurturing Parent • Supportive Moralistic Nurture Protect Critical Parent Make rules and regulations • Critical Teach Judge Injunctions

Verbal  Always  Never  for once and for all  judgmental words  critical words  patronising language  posturing language

Physical Angry impatient Body language expressions finger-pointing patronising gestures

THE ADULT
 Plan/ organisation  Make Decisions  Reason/ rational  Evaluate  Set limits  Adaptability  Intelligence  Objective appraisal of reality  Regulation of activity

Physical • Attentive • Interested • straight-forward • tilted head • non-threatening • non-threatened.

Verbal • why, what, how, who, where, when • how much • in what way • comparative expressions • reasoned statements • true • False • Probably • Possibly • I think • I realize • I see • I believe • in my opinion.

THE CHILD
         Anger, Fear • Playful • • Rebelliousness • Curiosity • Creativity Excitement/ Fun loving Affectionate Trust Selfish/ Mean
Natural Child
hateful loving impulsive, spontaneous playful

Little Professor
• • • thoughtful, creative imaginative

Adopted Child
• • • Fearful guilty ashamed

Physical • emotionally sad • Expressions • Despair • temper tantrums • whining voice • rolling eyes • shrugging shoulders • Teasing • Delight • Laughter • speaking behind hand • raising hand to speak • Squirming • giggling

Verbal • baby talk • I wish • I dunno • I want • I'm gonna • I don't care • oh no, • not again • things never go right for me • worst day of my life • Bigger • Biggest • Best • many superlatives • words to impress.

Comparison with Freud’s theory:
THE PARENT

SUPEREGO

EGO

THE ADULT

ID

THE CHILD

Analyzing Transactions
• • • Only 7% of meaning is in the words spoken. 38% of meaning is paralinguistic (the way that the words are said). 55% is in facial expression.

TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS
1. Complementary Transactions 2. Crossed transactions Transactions 3. Ulterior transactions.

1. Complementary Transactions
SAM TOM

P A C
What the time is it?

P A C
It is 5 minutes to four

2. Crossed Transaction
SAM TOM

P A C
What time is it?

P A C
Its time you brought yourself a watch

3. Ulterior transactions[ Games]
MANAGER TOM

P A C
What time is it ? ( You are late)

P A C
its 5 minutes to four ( I don’t Care)

Psychic Energy and Cathexis( distribution)

 At a given moment the ego state that is most cathected will have executive power. The Ego States have boundaries that are semi- permeable.

P

A

C

Types of Psychic energy: 1. Unbound energy: Active but not under deliberate control. - Parent and child are composed of this energy

P

C

2. Free energy: Willed and deliberately enacted. - Possessed by Adult ego state.

A

Normal Probability curve of Ego States
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 CP NP ADULT NC AC 3-D Column 1

Improper flow of energy in ego states that leads to maladaptive behaviour or psychological disorder
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 CP NP ADULT NC AC 3-D Column 1

Problems in Transactions
1. Blocking: Occurs when too much unbound energy is located in the Parent/ Child ego state and the boundaries are too rigid and impermeable to deal with this excess energy.

P A C

2. Contamination: Occurs when the boundaries become too permeable or flexible.
Parent Contamination Child Contamination

P A C
Double Contamination

3. Exclusion: When one or two ego states dominate.

STROKES
 Strokes are basic units of social interaction essential for life.  Need for recognition  Stroking can be physical, verbal or nonverbal  2 types of strokes: 1. Positive: e.g. smile, reward, ‘very good’. 2. Negative: e.g. abuse, punishment.  Strokes result in collection of good or bad feelings called stamps.

 These stamps can be cashed in when enough of them are collected. Example: Individuals might collect enough bad feelings from failing grades to justify their quitting school. The pattern of giving or receiving strokes is determined by life positions.
This need for recognition or strokes is so powerful that if

deprived of positive strokes, the person will seek negative strokes. Example: A child throwing tantrums/ misbehaving

Unconditional or conditional Strokes. • "I like you" - unconditional • "I like you when you smile" - conditional • "I don't like you" - negative unconditional • "I don't like you when you're sarcastic" negative conditional

RESTRICTIVE STROKE ECONOMY

• • • • •

Don't give strokes when we have them to give Don't ask for strokes when we need them Don't accept strokes if we want them Don't reject strokes when we don't want them Don't give ourselves strokes

UNRESTRICTIVE STROKE ECONOMY • • • • • Give strokes when we have them to give Ask for strokes when we want them Accept strokes if we want them Reject manipulative strokes Give ourselves positive strokes

TIME STRUCTURING
1. Withdrawal: No strokes received 1. Ritual: A pre-set exchange of recognition strokes. 1. Pastime: A pre-set conversation around a certain subject. 1. Games: Repetitive, devious series of transactions intended to get strokes. 1. Intimacy: A direct and powerful exchange of strokes which people crave but seldom attain. 1. Work: An activity which has a product as its result.

LIFE POSITIONS

SCRIPT
• • • The script is a life plan, made when we are growing up. 3 types Winner Looser Non winner Script Analysis Time structuring Transactions

4. GAMES
Ulterior transactions. A game is a familiar pattern of behavior with a predictable outcome.  Games are played outside Adult awareness  Mostly negative strokes derived Persecutor  3 roles - Persecutor - Rescuer - Victim  

Rescuer

Victim

“ Games People Play”
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1. “ Look how hard I tried” ( What I have not done is not my fault) “ Now I got you son of bitch” (suspicious/ revengeful) “ See what you have made me do” ( What I did is your fault) “ If it weren’t for you” ( What I have not done is your fault) "Why Don' You, Yes But" ( nothing ever works out) Courtroom ( Everyone agrees that I am right and you are wrong) Blemish (Fault finding) Let’s you and them fight (jealousy/revengeful) Wooden leg (What I do is not my fault, can't you see I have a wooden leg ) Corner (What I am going to do, will be your fault, because you said it, not me). Rapo ( I want something in exchange of my favor for you)

3 levels of intensity
• First Degree games: Played in social circles generally lead to mild upsets not major traumas. Second Degree games: Occur when the stakes may be higher. This usually occurs in more intimate circles. Third Degree games: Involve tissue damage and may end up in the jail, hospital or morgue. Fourth Degree games: Politics

Why people play games?????
• to structure time • to acquire strokes • to maintain the substitute feeling and the system of thinking, beliefs and actions that go with it • to confirm parental injunctions and further the life script • to maintain the person's life position by "proving" that self/others are not OK • to provide a high level of stroke exchange while blocking intimacy and maintaining distance

Dealing with games……..
1. Cross the transaction by responding from a different ego state than the one the stimulus is designed to hook. 1. Pick up the ulterior rather than the social message e.g. when a person says "I can't do this” (I'm useless). Rather than saying "let me do this for you” (Yes, you are useless) instead say "It sounds like you have a problem. What do you want me to do about it?" (said from the Adult ego state) 3. Replace the game strokes. 4. Exploring the advantages of playing games. 5. Identifying preferred ego states of each players

Analyzing………
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What keeps happening over and over again How does it start? What happens next? And then what happens? How does it end? How do you/other person feel after it ends?

For a free flowing transaction……..
• • • • • • • Adult to Adult interaction I am OK- You are OK Understand the games you play Stop playing games Focus on quality of strokes than quantity Avoid injunctions Identify your life script

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