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KILMAN – SESEON CULTURE GAP SURVEY
• Kilmann-Saxton Culture-Gap® Survey • by Ralph H. Kilmann and Mary J. Saxton
culture affects the quality of decision making and action taking. rules. Culture. procedures. therefore. culture is the unwritten—often unconscious— message that fills in the gaps between what is formally decreed and what actually takes place. It is not what the formal policies. Rather. As a result. . and job descriptions mandate. determines how formal statements get interpreted and provides what the written documents leave out.Assessing Actual versus Desired Cultural Norms • The culture of a work group is the invisible force that guides behavior. which in turn affects work group morale and performance.
• While culture manifests itself in several ways. it is most subject to measurement and change through work group norms. how to stay out of trouble. TheKilmann-Saxton Culture-Gap® Survey provides a systematic tool for pinpointing cultural norms. These norms are the unwritten "rules of the game. ." what really counts in order to get ahead or. alternatively.
Specifically. four culture-gaps are identified: .• These various profiles will enable you to pinpoint the particular Culture-Gaps that are barriers to organizational success.
For example: "Share information with other groups only when it benefits your own work group" versus "Share information to help other groups." Discourage creativity" versus "Encourage creativity." "Concentrate only on your own tasks" versus "Help others complete their tasks." ." • Task Innovation includes cultural norms that are technical in nature with a long time frame.• Task Support includes cultural norms that are technical in nature with a short time frame. For example: "Keep things the same" versus "Make changes.
For example: "Live for your job or career" versus "Live for yourself and your family." "Don't bother getting to know the people in your work group" versus "Get to know the people in your work group." . For example: "Don't participate in social activities with others in your organization" versus "Participate in social activities with others in your organization." "Believe in the organization's values" versus "Believe in your own values.• Social Responsibility includes cultual norms that have a people orientation with a short time frame." • Personal Freedom includes cultural norms that have a people orientation with a long time frame.
the resulting four types of Culture-Gaps are expected to capture the great variety of cultural norms that affect both morale and performance. .• Since the two underlying dimensions of cultural norms—(1) technical versus people and (2) short term versus long term—cover such a broad spectrum of experience in an organization.
LEADERSHIP – Organization Culture • An organization that fits one or more of the following descriptions is likely to exhibit the characteristics of a Newtonian organization— an organization that has been designed and managed according to an old and out-of-date paradigm about the nature of life and the universe: .
• The organization has experienced large doses of autocratic leadership in the past and. as a result. and entrenched with bureaucratic procedures (which seem to come with age and size—and efforts to control people and costs). has taught them not to take responsibility for their decisions and actions). habitually clings to its out-of-date formulas for success (instead of realizing that an altogether new paradigm is needed for today's world). at the very least. large. has thoroughly demoralized its employees (or. therefore. .• The organization is old. • The organization was very successful decades ago and.
is under considerable pressure to catch up to today's world). • The organization has implemented numerous cycles of singular. as a consequence.• The organization has encountered a sudden shift from a very stable to a mostly dynamic environment and. therefore. at a minimum. is still living in the past (or. quick-fix approaches and. . has failed to transform itself (and has. thereby. taught its employees that it may not be possible to transform an organization).
LDP – LEADERSHIP DEVELOPEMENT • Bringing Greater Consciousness into Organizations • The Most Complex and Least Understood Mode: Collaborating • Good and Bad Avoiding • How to Use a Conflict-Handling Mode • The Avoiding Culture in Many Organizations .
attitudes. and behavior are shaped by our surrounding systems (families. unless one is VERY conscious and has evolved beyond those organizational influences. . organizations.Bringing Greater Consciousness into Organizations • The basic premise is that roughly 80% of our beliefs. Some believe that the latter is even less than 20%. communities. and nations) and maybe only 20% is the remaining space for "free will" within those cultural systems.
there are more conditions that affect the choice of collaborating than any other conflict mode.The Most Complex and Least Understood Mode: Collaborating • Even though the collaborating mode sounds ideal to most people. • To begin with. . inviting. they will find one of the other modes more suited to the high-pressure situation. if people are faced with overwhelming stress. Only if the stress is stimulating. it can only be used successfully under the right conditions. As a result. In fact. and manageable can the collaborating mode possibly result in a win-win outcome. they won’t have the mental clarity to engage in a productive dialogue about what each person underlying concerns.
. it takes time for people to explore and then express what they really need and want. only use collaborating when you have the time (or can take the time) for a collaborative conversation. however. often overwhelming stress gives the impression that there is too much to do with so little time.• Moreover. Thus. With collaborating.
you’re inclined to sacrifice your needs for others—which undermines your self-esteem.Good and Bad Avoiding • There are two kinds of “avoiding” to keep in mind: good avoiding and bad avoiding. and prevents you from learning from others. wait for tempers to calm down. Good avoiding is when you purposely leave a conflict situation in order to collect more information. . is when the topic is very important to both persons (and to the organization). Bad avoiding. leaves you perpetually dissatisfied. or because you’ve concluded that what you first thought was a vital issue isn’t that important after all. however. but you aren’t comfortable with confronting other people: Instead.
But don’t avoid conflict simply because that mode is unfamiliar or uncomfortable to you. .• Bottom line: Only avoid when that approach to conflict serves to satisfy your needs as well as the needs of others—whether in the short term or long term. With awareness and practice (which builds self-confidence). you can easily learn to get both your needs and the other person’s needs met—for the best of both worlds.
How to Use a Conflict-Handling Mode • Even if you choose to avoid for the right reasons. does it make a difference what you actually say to people just before you withdraw from the situation? .
. but also using that mode in the most constructive manner possible. will go far in producing wellbeing and effective resolutions of conflict. rather than bad feelings and a potential worsening of the situation.• Bottom line: Choosing a mode wisely.
The Avoiding Culture in Many Organizations • Once the members of the organization. have become aware of the avoiding culture that prevails in different departments and levels in their organization. including senior managers. a very meaningful discussion can unfold: “What are the long-term consequences if we continue avoiding the most important issues facing our organization. so we can bring about long-term satisfaction and success?” . because our culture and reward system have conditioned us to keep issues and problems to ourselves?” The responses to this question then open up the vital topic that needs to be addressed with a great deal of assertiveness: “How can we purposely change our culture and reward system to support the use of conflict modes.
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