LTE Air interface & Architecture

Presentation By Shachi Agarwal Dhanesh Goel Shubha Koundinyan
LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 1

LTE AIR INTERFACE and Architecture

AGENDA  LTE/EPC Introduction  LTE Downlink Access  LTE Uplink Access  Physical Layer Processing  Time Frame Structure  Multi Antenna Solutions  Mobility

LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 2

3G LTE release

LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 3

3GPP (3rd generation partnership project)
› The 3rd generation partnership project is an agreement brings together a no. of telecommunication bodies to produce globally applicable Technical specifications & technical reports. › The standard development in 3GPP is grouped into two work items, where LTE targets on Radio Access Network only and SAE (System Architecture Evolution) targets on Core Network. › Common to both is that only Packet Switched Domain is defined. › The name of actual RAN is E-UTRAN and the name of core network is EPC (Evolved Packet Core) › E-UTRAN+EPC = EPS

LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 4

Architecture LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 5 .

Simplified network architecture WCDMA LTE/SAE LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 6 .

LTE Key Features › LTE radio access OFDMA SC-FDMA › Advanced antenna solutions TX TX › Spectrum flexibility 1.4 MHz 20 MHz › Efficient Time Dispersion Handling › All-IP architecture LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 7 .

LTE Radio Interface •The E-UTRAN Standard is based On OFDM/OFDMA downlink operation and SC-FDMA uplink operation •Support great spectrum flexiblity wit a no. of possible deployments from 1.4mhz to 20mhz spectrum allocations. m n m LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 8 .

The data stream is divided in many sub-carriers › The users in DL separated with OFDMA i. Radio transmissions is based on short TTI of 1ms.LTE Radio Access – Downlink OFDM .e each user has its own time & frequency resources so called resource Block.Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing › OFDM shows very good performance in highly time dispersive environment (i.e many delayed and strong multipath reflections).speeds up the operation n reduce radio interface latency. User 1 User 2 User 3 ∆f = 15 kHz e tim frequency LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 9 .

LTE DL Physical Resources 12 sub-carriers One Scheduling Block (2 Resource Blocks) 180 kHz and 1 ms tim e frequency LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 10 .

Radio Access Frames › 1SB = 12×14 (14 resource element) › 1RB = 12×7 (7 resource element) › 1SB = 2RB › 1 resource element corresponds to 1 OFDM symbol.5ms = 1RB 14×1ms =1SB LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 11 . › 1Radio frame = 10 SB(10 ms) › 1 Subframe consist of 2 slots 7×.

Baseband OFDM System Discrete frequency domain Each input controls signal at one frequency Discrete time domain Samples of modulated & Multiplexed symbols. LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 12 .

How are OFDM symbols generated? › Parallel data streams are used as inputs to an IFFT › IFFT output is sum of signal samples › IFFT does modulation and multiplexing in one step › Filtering and D/A of samples results in baseband signal. LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 13 . Typical IFFT output samples.

“sub-carrier spacing”.LTE Radio Access – Uplink SC-FDMA – Single Carrier FDMA (DFTS-OFDM) • Single-carrier FDMA • “Single-carrier” Improved poweramplifier efficiency • Reduced terminal power consumption and cost. and improved coverage • FDMA Intra-cell orthogonality in time and frequency domain • Improved uplink coverage and capacity • Can be seen as pre-coded OFDMA. more specifically “DFT-S-OFDM” • Same basic transmission parameter (frame length. …) e LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 14 User 1 User 2 User 3 m ti frequency .

Uplink Transmission LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 15 .

Uplink Frequency Hopping LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 16 .

300Mbps …and UL no MIMO 75Mbps LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 17 .0 ms sub frame 64QAM = 6 bits per symbol 6 x 14 = 84 bits per 1.8Mbps per antenna 4 x 4 MIMO: 403.0ms = 84kbps per sub carrier 12 x 84kbps = 1.0 ms sub frame 84bits/1.LTE DL peak rate 20 MHz and 4x4 MIMO AND 64 QAM 14 OFDM symbols per 1.008Mbps = 100.008Mbps per Scheduling Block 100 Scheduling Blocks in 20MHz 100 x 1.2Mbps ! BUT in reality approx.

› Physical Channels:.describe how physically data is mapped on to frequency channel with required coding and modulation.Channel Structure › Logical channels :. LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 18 .how data is transmitted and are mapped to different physical channels.describe which type of data is conveyed whether user plane data and control plane data. › Transport Channels:.

Logical Channels › Control Channels Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Paging Control Channel (PCCH) Common Control Channel (CCCH) Multicast Control Channel (MCCH) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) › Traffic Channels Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH) LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 19 .

Transport Channels › Downlink: Broadcast Channel (BCH) Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH) Paging Channel (PCH) Multicast channel (MCH) › Uplink: Uplink Shared channel (UL-SCH) Random Access Channel (RACH) LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 20 .

Physical Channels LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 21 .

Channel Mapping LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 22 .

Physical layer Processing UE LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 23 .

and PHICH) relies on CQIs and handover measurements. • • • Downlink used on the data channel (PDSCH):.uniformly distributed used on control channels (PBCH. PCFICH. Link Adaptation Time Domain (/user) Modulation scheme Channel coding Frequency Domain (/SB) Not that common LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 24 QPSK OFDM symbol 16QAM 64QAM 2bits 4bits 6bits Channel coding . Uplink •used both on the PUSCH and on the PUCCH •open loop combined with a closed loop mechanism is used Modulation scheme 2. PDCCH.Physical Layer procedures 1. 2. Power Control 1.

It proves efficient in utilizing bandwidth during switch over from transmitter to receiver. LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 25 . TDD means that UL/DL transmits at same frequency but at diff intervals.Time Domain Structure FDD means that UL/DL transmits at different frequency.

Note* The sub frame is typical scheduling unit of LTE LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 26 .Time Domain Structure FDD The fig is valid for both UL/DL One radio frame of length 10ms consists Of 10 sub frames of 1ms each. Further a sub frame is divided in two slots. Each consists of 7 OFDM symbols.

Guard Period. LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 27 . through which DL to UL switching takes place in second sub frame of each half frame.the complete Radio frame is divided into two half frames each consists of 5 sub frames of 1ms each. Uplink part).Time Domain Structure TDD In TDD . The second sub frame within each half frame has special structure (Downlink part.

TDD special sub frame configurations.14 symbols LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 28 . 1 subframe.

Multi Antenna Solutions LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 29 .

No. of layers gives the rank of the system.SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO SU-MIMO › › › increases the data rate for a single user by creating several layers for that user Used in Downlink. LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 30 . MU-MIMO › › › › different UE are spatially multiplexed are allocated the same resource blocks each UE does not experience a data rate multiplication increases the capacity in the cell and used in uplink.

Idle mode . the UE position is known by the network at TA level › In ECM-CONNECTED . an IP address is provided to it & remain with it even when UE turns to idle mode but released when UE detached from network.Connected mode.the UE position is known at the cell level by e-nodeb.LTE Mobility › The no. › When UE attached to the network. LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 31 . of states in which UE defined are Detached mode . › In ECM-IDLE.

it can directly go to LTE_Idle mode if no call request is intercepted on Paging Channel OR can be synchronized with eNB to make UL transmission possible called as IN_Sync or remain OUT_Of_Sync.when UE is off. LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 32 . When it powers on.LTE STATES LTE Detached:.

Inter eNB HO executed either by X2 interface or S1 interface. S-GW also needs to relocate hand in hand LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 33 . also MME needs to relocate from one pooling area to another one. CASE2: UE mobility within eNBs of different pooling areas. CASE 1: UE mobility within eNBs of same pooling areas In this case HO takes place through X2 interface only and no further relocation of parameters is required. In this case S1 interface comes into picture.

•Target nodeB performs control functions and if it is able to accept HO. •Again use either X2 /S1 interface for HO signaling. enode B sends the info to node A for forwarding to UE LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 34 .it reserves cell resources required for UE.Handover preparation If another cell is identified as better server then HO Request is send to the target node.

Lte Architecture LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 35 .

Features of enode-b › Cell control and Mobility Pool support › Mobility control › Control and User plane security › Measurements and Reporting › Scheduling › HARQ › Physical layer functionalities-Beamforming processing. scrambling › Multiplexing and Mapping-Mapping logical channels to transport channels LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 36 .

LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 37 .Functionality of MME › Acts as a controlling node › Idle mode mobility management › Checks authorization of the mobile in the service providers PLMN and enforces Roaming restrictions › Provides control plane functionality between LTE and other 2G and 3G networks › It is involved in initial authentication of user by interacting with the HSS.

LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 38 .EVDO. › It acts as an anchor between LTE system and other 3GPP networks like WCDMA › Connecting LTE network to non GPP systems like WiMax and other 3GPP2 networks like CDMA.Service/packet gateway › Acts as a Interconnection between the different eNodeB’s.

hss › HSS is home subscriber server. › It contains the database of all the subscribers › It also contains their location and subscription details LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 39 .

Radio Interface protocols-USER plane UE IP PDCP RLC MAC PHY PDCP RLC MAC PHY eNodeB GW IP LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 40 .

Control Plane UE NAS RRC PDCP RLC MAC PHY RRC PDCP RLC MAC PHY eNodeB MME NAS LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 41 .

5Gbps ! LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 42 .LTE 3GPP Rel 10(4G) 20 MHz › Carrier aggregation 100 MHz total bandwidth › Spectrum aggregation 20 MHz 20 MHz 40 MHz total bandwidth › DL/UL Multi-Antenna transmission 8 › Higher peak rates 4 Peak rates: 3Gbps/1.

Thanks LTE Fundamentals Tutorial | Commercial in confidence | 2010-05-25 | Page 43 .

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