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Specimen collection

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Tan TG
In Your Class……
 Study morphology of bacteria,
 Understand the role of culture media,
 Learn basic laboratory techniques

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Specimens
 Examples:
 Blood - culture / serology
 Faces
 Swabs
 CSF
 Urine and many more ……

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Quality report
 The quality of a clinical
microbiological report is directly
related to the quality of the specimen

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Good quality specimen
 Important to collect/obtain a proper
and quality specimen
 Poor quality specimen produce
useless result
 Effectiveness of a lab is determine
by:
 a) collection of good quality
specimens
 b) quick transportation to the lab
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Collection of quality specimen
1) Time of collection
 before start of antibiotics

 virus - isolation or electron microscopy -

during the acute stage of the disease


 blood culture - patient’s temperature starts

to rise
 urine/sputum - morning specimen

 others depend on condition of patient &

time agreed between doctor / nurse

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(2) Correct type of specimen
 sputum- not saliva- for respiratory
pathogens
 pernasal - not nasal - for pertusis
(Bordetella pertusis)
 cervical not vaginal swab (Neisseria
gonorrhoeae)

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3) Collection technique
 Aseptic technique - to protect patient.
Contamination from normal bacteria
flora of patient/doctor/nurse
 throat swab - not tongue
 urine - MSU

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4) Adequate amount & number
 Early morning urine sample for 3
successive days - Mycobacterium
tuberculosis
 Two samples of faeces/stool on
different days - Salmonella / Shigella

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5) Labeling & container
 Container & request form - label
clearly patient’s name, RN & ward
 Information - type of specimen, date
& time of collection, investigation
required, etc
 Biohazard sticker - for High Risk
apecimens

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Container
 Sterile, leak-proof, dry & free from all
traces of disinfectant
 Glass: re-usable & economical.
Example: universal bottles, bijou,
etc
 Plastic: disposable.
sterile & non-sterile

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Abnormal features
 After collection of specimen keep an
eye for abnormal features
 Examples:- cloudiness instead of
clear, presence of pus, blood, mucus

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Quick transportation to lab
 Why?
 (i) many pathogens do not survive
 examples: gonococci, Haemophilus,
Bacteroides, most viruses
 (ii) contamination
 coagulase negative staphylococcus &
coliforms grow rapidly at RT0

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Delay / late delivery
 (i) keep in refrigerator
 (ii) culture immediately
 (iii) use preservative - boric acid for
urine sample & transport media for
swab sample

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Transport media
 non-nutrient
 solid or semi-solid
 purpose is to prevent organisms from
dying due to (i) enzyme action (ii)
change of pH (iii) lack of essential
nutrients (iv) dryness
 examples: Stuart medium, Amies
medium, Cary-Blair medium, etc

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Composition of medium
Stuart medium
 non-nutrient

 solidified with agar

Amies medium
 same as Stuart medium

 charcoal added - to detoxify toxins

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Viral transport medium
 contains a balanced amino-acids salts
solution
 an appropriate pH
 antibiotics

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Bacteriology laboratory
Patient
Proper collection of clinical specimen
Bacteriology laboratory
Serology Test(Blood) Isolation of
bacteria
Identification of bacteria
Sensitivity test
Bacteriology Report
Patient
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Summary
 Collection of good quality specimen
 Quick transportation of specimen to
the lab
 Transport medium-
virology/bacteriology
 Container

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Thank you

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