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# These are some of the most powerful

## analysis results to be discussed.

They permit to hide information that is
not relevant and concentrate in what is
important to the analysis
THEVENINS AND NORTONS THEOREMS
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Low distortion audio power amplifier
From PreAmp
(voltage )
To speakers
TO MATCH SPEAKERS AND AMPLIFIER
IT IS MUCH EASIER TO CONSIDER THIS
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT!
TO MATCH SPEAKERS AND
AMPLIFIER ONE SHOULD ANALYZE
THIS CIRCUIT
+
-
R
TH
V
TH
REPLACE AMPLIFIER
BY SIMPLER
EQUIVALENT
Courtesy of M.J. Renardson
LINEAR CIRCUIT
May contain
independent and
dependent sources
with their controlling
variables
PART A
LINEAR CIRCUIT
May contain
independent and
dependent sources
with their controlling
variables
PART B
a
b _
O
v
+
i
THEVENINS EQUIVALENCE THEOREM
Resistance Equivalent Thevenin
Source Equivalent Thevenin
TH
TH
R
v
LINEAR CIRCUIT
PART B
a
b _
O
v
+
i

+
TH
R
TH
v
PART A
Thevenin Equivalent Circuit
for PART A
LINEAR CIRCUIT
May contain
independent and
dependent sources
with their controlling
variables
PART A
LINEAR CIRCUIT
May contain
independent and
dependent sources
with their controlling
variables
PART B
a
b _
O
v
+
i
NORTONS EQUIVALENCE THEOREM
Resistance Equivalent Thevenin
Source Equivalent Thevenin
N
N
R
i
LINEAR CIRCUIT
PART B
a
b _
O
v
+
i
N
R
N
i
PART A
Norton Equivalent Circuit
for PART A
Examples of Valid and Invalid Partitions
OUTLINE OF PROOF - version 1
If Circuit A is unchanged then the current should be the same FOR ANY Vo
USE SOURCE SUPERPOSITION
SC
i
+
All independent
sources set to
zero in A
O
i
=
=
O
O
TH
i
v
R DEFINE
SC O
i i i + =
O SC
TH
O
v i
R
v
i + = ;
SC
TH
OC
OC O
i
R
v
v v
i
+ = =
=
0
) 0 ( CIRCUIT OPEN : CASE SPECIAL
SC
OC
TH
i
v
R =
TH
OC
SC
R
v
i =
i R v v i
R
v
i
TH OC O SC
TH
O
= + =
HOW DO WE INTERPRET THIS RESULT?
OUTLINE OF PROOF - version 2
2. Result must hold for every valid Part B that we can imagine
1. Because of the linearity of the models, for any Part B the relationship
between Vo and the current, i, has to be of the form
n i m v
O
+ = *
3. If part B is an open circuit then i=0 and...
OC
v n =
4. If Part B is a short circuit then Vo is zero. In this case
OC TH O
v i R v + =
How do we interpret this?
OC SC
v i m + = * 0
TH
SC
OC
R
i
v
m = =
LINEAR CIRCUIT
May contain
independent and
dependent sources
with their controlling
variables
PART A
LINEAR CIRCUIT
May contain
independent and
dependent sources
with their controlling
variables
PART B
a
b _
O
v
+
i
This is the Thevenin equivalent
circuit for the circuit in Part A
OC TH O
v i R v + =
For ANY circuit in Part B
The voltage source is called the
THEVENIN EQUIVALENT SOURCE
The resistance is called the
THEVENIN EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE
R
TH
i
+
_
O
v
OC
v
+
_
PART A MUST BEHAVE LIKE
THIS CIRCUIT
LINEAR CIRCUIT
May contain
independent and
dependent sources
with their controlling
variables
PART A
ANY
PART B
a
b _
O
v
+
i
THEVENIN APPROACH
Norton Approach
SC
i
TH
R

+
O
v
a
b
i
Norton
TH
O
TH
OC
TH OC O
R
v
R
v
i i R v v = =
LINEAR CIRCUIT
May contain
independent and
dependent sources
with their controlling
variables
PART A
ANY
PART B
a
b _
O
v
+
i
SC
TH
OC
i
R
v
=
Source Equivalent Norton
SC
i
Part A for tion Representa
Equivalent Norton
R
TH
i
+
_
O
v
OC
v
+
_
Thevenin
TH
OC
SC
R
v
i =
This equivalence can be viewed as a source transformation problem
It shows how to convert a voltage source in series with a resistor
into an equivalent current source in parallel with the resistor
SC
i
TH
R

+
O
v
a
b
i
Norton
ANOTHER VIEW OF THEVENINS AND NORTONS THEOREMS
SOURCE TRANSFORMATION CAN BE A GOOD TOOL TO REDUCE THE
COMPLEXITY OF A CIRCUIT
Source transformation is a good tool to reduce complexity in a circuit ...
WHEN IT CAN BE APPLIED!!
Source Transformationcan be used to determine the Thevenin or Norton Equivalent...
BUT THERE MAY BE MORE EFFICIENT TECHNIQUES
ideal sources are not good models for real behavior of sources
A real battery does not produce infinite current when short-circuited
+
-
Improved model
for voltage source
Improved model
for current source
S
V
V
R
S
I
I
R
a
b
a
b
S S
I V
RI V
R R R
=
= =
WHEN S EQUIVALENT ARE MODELS THE
EXAMPLE: SOLVE BY SOURCE TRANSFORMATION
The equivalent current source will have the
value 12V/3k
The 3k and the 6k resistors now are in parallel
and can be combined
In between the terminals we connect a current
source and a resistance in parallel
In between the terminals we connect a voltage
source in series with the resistor
The equivalent source has value 4mA*2k
The 2k and the 2k resistor become connected
in series and can be combined
After the transformation the sources can be combined
The equivalent current source has value 8V/4k
and the combined current source has value 4mA
Options at this point
1. Do another source transformation and get
a single loop circuit
2. Use current divider to compute I_0 and then
compute V_0 using Ohms law
Or one more source transformation
eq eq eq
I R V =
+
-
V
eq
R
eq R
3
R
4

+
0
V
PROBLEM Compute V_0 using source transformation
3 current sources in parallel and
three resistors in parallel
0
I
eq eq eq
I R V =
eq
eq
V
R R R
R
V
+ +
=
3 4
4
0
EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
TH
TH
V
R
Source Transformationcan be used to determine the Thevenin or Norton Equivalent...
WE NOW REVIEW SEVERAL EFFICIENT APPROACHES
TO DETERMINE THEVENIN OR NORTON EQUIVALENT
CIRCUITS
+
-
Improved model
for voltage source
Improved model
for current source
S
V
V
R
S
I
I
R
a
b
a
b
S S
I V
RI V
R R R
=
= =
WHEN S EQUIVALENT ARE MODELS THE
RECAP OF SOURCE TRANSFORMATION
A General Procedure to Determine the Thevenin Equivalent
1. Determine the
Thevenin equivalent
source
Remove part B and
compute the OPEN
CIRCUIT voltage
ab
V
2. Determine the
SHORT CIRCUIT
current
Remove part B and
compute the SHORT
CIRCUIT current
ab
I
SC
OC
TH OC TH
i
v
R v v = = ,
LINEAR CIRCUIT
May contain
independent and
dependent sources
with their controlling
variables
PART A
a
b
_
0 =
+
v
SC
i
ab
I
Second circuit problem
Resistance Equivalent Thevenin
circuit short a by
replaced is B Part if b - a through current
Current Circuit Short
removed is B Part if b - a at oltage v
ltage Circuit vo Open

SC
TH
TH
SC
TH
i
v
R
i
v
=
One circuit problem
_
ab
V
+
LINEAR CIRCUIT
May contain
independent and
dependent sources
with their controlling
variables
PART A
a
b
_
OC
v
+
0 = i
AN EXAMPLE OF DETERMINING THE THEVENIN EQUIVALENT
+
-
a
b
To Part B
V
S
R
1
R
2
I
S
Part B is irrelevant.
The voltage V_ab will be the value of the
Thevenin equivalent source.
What is an efficient technique to compute the
open circuit voltage?
TH
V
Now for the short circuit current
Lets try source superposition
SC
I
1
R
V
I I
S
S SC
+ =
When the current source is open the
current through the short circuit is
1
1
R
V
I
S
SC
=
When the voltage source is set to zero,
the current through the short circuit is
S SC
I I =
2
To compute the Thevenin resistance we
use
SC
TH
TH
I
V
R =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
S
S
TH
I
R
V
R R
R R
V
1 2 1
2 1
For this case the Thevenin resistance can be computed as
the resistance from a - b when all independent sources have been
set to zero
Is this a
general
result?
S S TH
S
S
TH
S
S TH TH
I
R R
R R
V
R R
R
V
I
R
V
V
R R
I
R
V V
R
V
2 1
2 1
2 1
2
1 2 1
1 2
)
1 1
(
0
+
+
+
=
+ = +
=

+
NODE
ANALYSIS
2 1
2 1
R R
R R
R
TH
+
=
Determining the Thevenin Equivalent in Circuits with Only INDEPENDENT SOURCES
The Thevenin Equivalent Source is computed as the open loop voltage
The Thevenin Equivalent Resistance CAN BE COMPUTED by setting to zero all the sources
and then determining the resistance seen from the terminals where the equivalent will be placed
+
-
a
b
To Part B
V
S
R
1
R
2
I
S
a
b
R
TH
R
2
R
1
Part B
O = k R
TH
3
Part B
O = k R
TH
4
Since the evaluation of the Thevenin
equivalent can be very simple, we
can add it to our toolkit for the
solution of circuits!!
V 6
O k 5
PART B
] [ 1 ) 6 (
5 1
1
V V
k k
k
V
O
=
+
=
LEARNING BY DOING
LEARNING EXAMPLE
In the region shown, one could use source
transformation twice and reduce that part to
a single source with a resistor.
... Or we can apply Thevenin Equivalence
to that part (viewed as Part A)
O = k R
TH
4
For the open loop voltage
the part outside the region
is eliminated
] [ 8 ] [ 12
6 3
6
V V V
TH
=
+
=
The original circuit becomes...
And one can apply Thevenin one more time!
O = k R TH 4
1

+
1
TH
V
For open loop voltage use KVL
V V mA k V
TH
16 8 2 * 4
1
= + =
...and we have a simple voltage divider!!
V V V 8 ] [ 16
8 8
8
0
=
+
=
COMPUTE Vo USING THEVENIN
Or we can use Thevenin only once to get a voltage divider
Part B
For the Thevenin resistance
For the Thevenin voltage we have to analyze the
following circuit
METHOD??
Source superposition, for example
Contribution of the voltage source
V V V
OC
8 12
6 3
6
1
=
+
=
Contribution of the current source
V mA k k V
OC
8 ) 2 ( * ) 2 2 (
2
= + =
Simple Voltage Divider
Thevenin Equivalent of Part A
O = k R
TH
8
LEARNING EXAMPLE
You have the choice on the way to partition
the circuit.
Make Part A as simple as possible
Part B
Since there are only independent sources,
for the Thevenin resistance we set to zero all
sources and determine the equivalent resistance
O =
O + =
k R
k R
TH
TH
3
10
] )[ 4 || 2 ( 2
For the open circuit voltage we analyze the
following circuit (Part A) ...
0 ) ( 2 4 6
2
2 1 1
2
= + +
=
I I k kI V
mA I
Analysis Loop
mA mA
I
I
3
5
6
2 6
2
1
=
+
=
] [ 3 / 32 4 3 / 20 * 2 * 4
2 1
V V I k I k V
OC
= + = + =
The circuit becomes...
USE THEVENIN TO COMPUTE Vo
LEARNING EXTENSION: USE THEVENIN TO COMPUTE Vo
PART B

+
OC
V
I
mA I V kI 2 ] [ 18 9 = =
] [ 6 12 3 V kI V
OC
= =
k k k R
TH
2 6 || 3 = =

+
O
V

+
O = k R
TH
2
O k 2
O k 4
V V
TH
6 =
RESULTING EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
] [ 3 ) 6 (
4 4
4
V V V
O
=
+
=
TH
R
LEARNING EXTENSION: COMPUTE Vo USING NORTON
PART B
O = = k R R
TH N
3
SC
I
mA mA
k
V
I I
N SC
2 2
3
12
= = =
N
I
N
R
k 4
k 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
N
N
N
O
I
k R
R
k kI V
6
2 2
I
] [
3
4
) 2 (
9
3
2 V V
O
= =
COMPUTE Vo USING THEVENIN PART B
TH
V
0 2
3
12
= +

mA
k
V
TH
k k R
TH
4 3 + =
+
-
TH
R
TH
V
k 2

+
O
V
] [
3
4
) 6 (
7 2
2
V V V
O
=
+
=
SAMPLE PROBLEM
+
-
R
TH
V
TH
This is what we need to get
Equivalent Resistance: Independent sources only
R R R R
TH
5 . 1 3 || 3 = =
TH
R
Equivalent Voltage: Node, loop, superposition
1
I
2
I
S
I I =
1
0 ) ( 5
2 2 1
= + + + RI I I R V
S

+
TH
V
KVL
) ( 2
2 1 2
I I R RI V
TH
+ =
Opening the current source:
2
1
S
TH
V
V =
Short circuiting the voltage source
R
2R
3R
I
S
+
V
2
TH
_
1
I
S
I I
6
5
1
=
2
I
S
I I
6
1
2
=
KVL
S TH
RI RI RI V
2
1
2
2 1
2
= =
2 1
TH TH TH
V V V + =
Do loops

+
TH
V
SAMPLE PROLEM All independent sources
All resistors are in parallel!!
k k k k R
TH
7 / 8 || 8 , 4 , 2 || = =
The circuit can be simplified

+
TH
V
,,, An to compute Equivalent Source...
+
TH
V
+

+
Voltage divider
] )[ 6 / 24 6 (
) 6 / 8 ( 8
8
V
k k
k
V
TH
+
+
=
SOURCE
TRANSFORMATION
THEVENIN EQUIVALENT FOR CIRCUITS WITH ONLY DEPENDENT SOURCES
A circuit with only dependent sources cannot self start.
0 =
TH
V
This is a big simplification!!
But we need a special approach for the
computation of the Thevenin equivalent resistance
Since the circuit cannot self start we need to probe it
with an external source
The source can be either a voltage source or a
current source and its value can be chosen arbitrarily!
Which one to choose is often determined by the
simplicity of the resulting circuit
( ) 0
0 ) (
2 1
2 1
= + +
= + +
x
X x
I R R a
I R R aI
0 0
2 1
= = + +
x
I R R a
(actually that statement has to be qualified a bit.
What happens if )
?
2 1
R R a + =
FOR ANY PROPERLY DESIGNED CICUIT WITH ONLY DEPENDENT
SOURCES
0 , 0 = =
SC OC
I V
IF WE CHOOSE A VOLTAGE PROBE...
) (
P
V
) (
P
V
P
P
TH
I
V
R =
1
R
aI V
I I
X P
X P

+ =
2
R
V
I
P
X
=
P P
V
R R
a
R R
I
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2 1 1 2
1 1
P
P
TH
V
R R
a
R R
V
R
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2 1 1 2
1 1
The value chosen for the probe voltage is irrelevant.
Oftentimes we simply set it to one
WE MUST COMPUTE CURRENT SUPPLIED BY
PROBE SOURCE
IF WE CHOOSE A CURRENT SOURCE PROBE
) (
P
I
) (
P
I
P
P
TH
I
V
R =
We must compute the node voltage V_p
0
1 2
=

+
P
X P P
I
R
aI V
R
V
KCL
2
R
V
I
P
X
=
P P
I V
R R
a
R R
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2 1 1 2
1 1
The value of the probe current is irrelevant. For simplicity
it is often choosen as one.
LEARNING EXAMPLE
Do we use current probe or voltage probe?
P
V 1
V
0
1 2
2
1
: @
1 1 1
1
=

+
k
V V
k
V V
k
V
V KCL
P X
Controlling variable:
1
V V V
P X
=
P
V
k
V
k
V V
k
V
I
X X P P
P
1 1
2
2
+

+ =
P
I
If we use voltage probe there is only one
node not connected through source
P
P
TH
I
V
R =
Using voltage probe. Must compute
current supplied
P X P
V V V V
7
3
,
7
4
1
= =
EQUATIONS THE SOLVING
k
V
I
P
P
14
15
=
O = k
15
14
FIND THE THEVENIN EQUIVALENT
LEARNING EXAMPLE
Only dependent sources. Hence V_th = 0
To compute the equivalent resistance we
must apply an external probe
We choose to apply a current probe
P
I

+
P
V
P
P
TH
I
V
R =
@V_1
@V_2
) (
P
I
Controlling variable
Conventional circuit with dependent
sources - use node analysis
0 ) ( 2 6 ) 2 ( 3
2 1 1 1 1
= + + V V V V V
] [ 6 3 ) ( 2
2 1 2
V V V V = +
6 5 2
0 2 5
2 1
2 1
= +
=
V V
V V
7
10
21
30
2
= = V
O = = = = k
mA
V
R mA I V V
TH P P
) 7 / 10 (
1
) 1 ( ) (
2
2
R
TH
A
B
Thevenin equivalent
5 / *
2 / *
Find the Thevenin Equivalent circuit at A - B
SAMPLE PROBLEM
mA I
P
1 =
Loop analysis
P
X
I I
V
I = =
2 1
;
2000
0 ) ( * 4 ) ( * 2 ) ( * 1 * 2
1 3 1 2 3 3 2 3
= + + + + + I I k I I I k I I k I k
Controlling variable ) ( * 1
2 3
I I k V
X
+ =
+
P
V
Voltage across current probe
0 ) ( * 2 ) ( * 1
1 2 3 2 3
= + + + + I I I k I I k V
P
R
TH
A
B
Thevenin equivalent
mA
V
I
V
R
P
P
P
TH
1
= =
The resistance is
numerically equal
to V_p but with
units of KOhm
I_1 = I_p/2
I_3=0
R_th = 2kOhms
METHOD? FIND MUST .
P AB
V V =
LINEAR CIRCUIT
May contain
independent and
dependent sources
with their controlling
variables
PART A
a
b _
O
v
+
i
Thevenin Equivalent
Circuits with both Dependent and Independent Sources
+
-
TH
R
TH
V
a
b
OC TH
V V =
SC
OC
TH
I
V
R =
We will compute open circuit voltage and short circuit current
For each determination of a Thevenin equivalent
we will solve two circuits
Any and all the techniques discussed should be readily
available; e.g.,
KCL, KVL,combination series/parallel, node, loop analysis,
source superposition, source transformation, homogeneity
The approach of setting to zero all sources and then
combining resistances to determine the Thevenin
resistance is in general not applicable!!
EXAMPLE Use Thevenin to determine Vo
Part B
Part A should be as simple as possible.
After Part A is replaced by the Thevenin
equivalent we should have a very simple circuit
Guidelines to partition:
Open circuit voltage
The dependent sources and their controlling
variables must remain together
Options???
1
V
OC OC
V V V V + = = 12 12
1 1
Constraint at super node
KCL at super node
0
2 2
12
1
) ( ) 12 (
1
= +
+
+
+
k
V
k
V
k
aI V
OC OC X OC
Equation for controlling variable
k
V
I
OC
X
2
1
=
Solve
) 1 / ( 4
36
k a
V
OC
+
=
Short circuit current
A
V
0
2
"
= =
k
V
I
A
X
mA
k k
V
I
SC
18
2 || 1
12
= =
] [
) 1 / ( 4
2
O
+
= = k
k a I
V
R
SC
OC
TH
Setting all sources to zero and combining
resistances will yield an incorrect value!!!!
Negative resistances for some as
Solution to the problem
OC
V
) 2 ( k a R
TH
=
TH
TH
V
R k k
k
V
+ +
=
1 1
1
0
X
I
Find Vo using Thevenin
Open circuit voltage
X
I
Super node
0
6
) 3 (
1
2
1 1
=

+
k
V V
mA
k
V
Method???
1
V
] )[ 4 / 3 (
1
V V =
KVL
Controlling variable
k
V
I
X
2
1
=
0 1000
1
= + V I V
X TH
KVL
] )[ 8 / 3 ( V V
TH
=
Short Circuit Current
SC
I
1
X
I
1
1
V
1 1
1
1000
X
I V =
k
V
I
X
2
1
1
1
=
0 0
1 1
1
= =
X
I V
KCL
mA k V mA I
SC
5 . 0 ) 6 /( ) 3 ( 1 = + =
k
I
V
R
SC
OC
TH
) 4 / 3 ( = =
The equivalent circuit
+
-
V
TH
R
TH 1k
2k
+
V
O
_
] )[ 8 / 3 (
) 4 / 3 ( 1 2
2
0
V V
+ +
=
The equivalent resistance cannot be obtained by
short circuiting the sources and determining the
resistance of the resulting interconnection of resistors

+
TH
V
EXAMPLE: Use Thevenin to compute Vo
Part B
Open Circuit Voltage mA I
V
I
X
2 ;
2000
2
1
1
= = Loop equations
Controlling variable
) ( 4
2 1
1
I I k V
X
=
mA I I I k kI kI V
X
4 ) ( 4 2 2
1 2 1 1 1
1
= = =
] [ 3 * 2
1
V I k V
OC
+ =
V V mA k 11 3 4 * 2 = + =
Short circuit current
1
I
2
I
sc
I
Loop equations
mA I
V
I
x
2 ;
2000
2
"
1
= =
0 ) ( 2 3
1
= + I I k V
SC
Controlling variable
) ( * 4
2 1
"
I I k V
X
=
mA I 4
1
=
Same as before
mA
k
I k V
I
SC
2
11
2
* 2 3
1
=
+
=
Thevenin resistance
O = = = k
mA
V
I
V
R
SC
OC
TH
2
) 2 / 11 (
] [ 11
Now compute V_0 using the Thevenin equivalent
TH
V
TH
R
] [ 11
8 6
6
0
V
k k
k
V
+
=
KVL for V_oc
Use loops
+
-
v
S
R
1
R
2
V
x
R
3
g
m
V
x
a
b
Linear Model for Transistor
+
-
V
TH
R
TH
a
b
SC
OC
TH OC TH
I
V
R V V = = ,
The alternative for mixed sources
Open circuit voltage

+
TH
V
x m TH
V R g V
3
=
S m TH S x
v
R R
R R
g V v
R R
R
V
2 1
2 3
2 1
2
+
=
+
=
Short circuit current
SC
I
S m x m SC
v
R R
R
g V g I
2 1
2
+
= =
Equivalent Resistance
3
R
I
V
R
SC
OC
TH
= =
EXAMPLE
a
b
R
TH
V
TH

+
SAMPLE PROBLEM
Mixed sources. Must compute Voc and Isc
Open circuit voltage

+
TH
V
1
I
KCL at super node
0 2
1
= + +
X X
I I I
The two 4k resistors are in parallel
X
I I =
1
Short circuit current
SC
I
X
I
KVL
0 * 6 ] [ 12 ) 4 / ( * 4 = +
SC SC
I k V I k
mA I
SC
7
12
=
O = = = k
mA
V
I
V
R
SC
TH
TH
7
) 7 / 12 (
12
supernode
X SC
I I 4 =
KCL at supernode
] [ 12 0 V V I
TH X
= =
SAMPLE PROBLEM
+
TH
V
Mixed sources! Must compute open loop voltage and
short circuit current
X
V
b
V
S S X
V V
R R
R
V
3
2
) 2 (
2
=
+
=
Open circuit voltage
b X TH
V V V =
For Vx use voltage divider
For Vb use KVL
S S X b
V aR V aV R V ) 3 / 4 1 ( ) ( 2 + = + =
S S S X X TH
V V Ra V RaV V V = + = ) 3 / 2 )( 2 1 ( ) 2 (
S TH
V
aR
V
3
4 1+
=
Short circuit current
SC
I
We need to compute V_x
Single node
X
V
KCL@Vx
0
2 2
2
1
1
1 1
=

+ +

R
V V
aV
R
V
R
V V
s X
X
X S x
aR
V
V
S
X
2 4
3
1

=
KCL again can give the short circuit current
R
V V
aV I
S X
X SC
2
1
1

+ = S SC
V
aR R
aR
I
) 2 1 ( 4
4 1

+
=
3
) 2 1 ( 4 aR R
I
V
I
V
R
SC
TH
SC
OC
TH

= = =
a
b
R
TH
V
TH

+
LEARNING EXAMPLE
Using EXCEL to generate and plot data
O s s k R V R
X OC TH
10 0 , , WHEN PLOT AND FIND
(

+
=
+
= =
X
X
OC
X
X
X TH
R k
R
V
R
R
R k R
4
6 12
4
4
|| 4
DATA TO BE PLOTTED
THEVENIN EQUIVALENT EXAMPLE
Rx[kOhm] Voc[V] Rth[kOhm]
0 12 0
0.1 11.8537 0.097560976
0.2 11.7143 0.19047619
0.3 11.5814 0.279069767
0.4 11.4545 0.363636364
0.5 11.3333 0.444444444
0.6 11.2174 0.52173913
0.7 11.1064 0.595744681
0.8 11 0.666666667
0.9 10.898 0.734693878
1 10.8 0.8
1.1 10.7059 0.862745098
1.2 10.6154 0.923076923
1.3 10.5283 0.981132075
1.4 10.4444 1.037037037
1.5 10.3636 1.090909091
1.6 10.2857 1.142857143
1.7 10.2105 1.192982456
1.8 10.1379 1.24137931
1.9 10.0678 1.288135593
USING EXCEL
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0 2 4 6 8 10
Rx[kOhm]
V
o
c
[
V
]
Voc[V]
Rth[kOhm]
LEARNING EXAMPLE
Using MATLAB to generate and plot data
O s s k R V R
X OC TH
10 0 , , WHEN PLOT AND FIND
(

+
=
+
= =
X
X
OC
X
X
X TH
R k
R
V
R
R
R k R
4
6 12
4
4
|| 4
DATA TO BE PLOTTED
Rx=[0:0.1:10]'; %define the range of resistors to use
Voc=12-6*Rx./(Rx+4); %the formula for Voc. Notice "./"
Rth=4*Rx./(4+Rx); %formula for Thevenin resistance.
plot(Rx,Voc,'bo', Rx,Rth,'md')
title('USING MATLAB'), %proper graphing tools
grid, xlabel('Rx(kOhm)'), ylabel('Volts/kOhms')
legend('Voc[V]','Rth[kOhm]')
A MORE GENERAL VIEW OF THEVENIN THEOREM
+
-
R
2R
- V
X +
2R
aV
X
V
TH
a
b
LINEAR CIRCUIT
May contain
independent and
dependent sources
with their controlling
variables
PART A
a
b _
O
v
+
i
LINEAR CIRCUIT with
ALL independent
sources set to zero
PART A
a
b
_
O
v
+
i

+
TH
V
THIS INTERPRETATION APPLIES
EVEN WHEN THE PASSIVE ELEMENTS
INCLUDE INDUCTORS AND CAPACITORS
USUAL INTERPRETATION
Thevenin
MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER
From PreAmp
(voltage )
To speakers
+
-
R
TH
V
TH
The simplest model for a
speaker is a resistance...
+
-
R
TH
V
TH
SPEAKER
MODEL
BASIC MODEL FOR THE
ANALYSIS OF POWER
TRANSFER
http://angelfire.com/ab3/mjramp/index.html
Courtesy of M.J. Renardson
MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER
+
-
SOURCE
R
TH
V
TH
R
L

+
L
V
TH
L TH
L
L
L
L
L
V
R R
R
V
R
V
P
+
= = ;
2
( )
2
2
TH
L TH
L
L
V
R R
R
P
+
=
For every choice of R_L we have a different power.
How do we find the maximum value?
Consider P_L as a function of R_L and find the
maximum of such function
( ) ( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
=
4
2
2
2
L TH
L TH L L TH
TH
L
L
R R
R R R R R
V
dR
dP
3
Set the derivative to zero to find extreme points.
For this case we need to set to zero the numerator
= + 0 2
L L TH
R R R
TH L
R R =
*
The maximum
power transfer
theorem
The load that maximizes the power transfer for a circuit is
equal to the Thevenin equivalent resistance of the circuit.
Technically we need
to verify that it is
indeed a maximum
The value of the maximum
power that can be
transferred is
TH
TH
L
R
V
P
4
(max)
2
=
ONLY IN THIS CASE WE NEED TO COMPUTE THE THEVENIN VOLTAGE
LEARNING EXAMPLE
a
b
We need to find the Thevenin resistance
at a - b.
The circuit contains only independent sources ....
k k k k R
TH
6 || 6 , 3 || 4 = + =
Resistance for maximum
power transfer
If we MUST find the value of the
power that can be transferred THEN
we need the Thevenin voltage!!!
mA I loop 2 : 1
1
=
0 ] [ 3 * 6 ) ( * 3 : 2
2 1 2
= + + V I k I I k loop
] [
3
1
3
1
9
] [ 3
1 2
mA I
k
V
I = + =
TH
TH
MX
R
V
P
4
2
=
] [
6
25
6 * 4
] [ 100
2
mW
k
V
P
MX
= =
] [ 10 * 6 * 4 :
2 1
V I k I k V KVL
OC
= + =
TRANSFER POWER MAXIMUM FOR DETERMINE
L
R
LEARNING EXAMPLE
a
b
1. Find the Thevenin equivalent at a - b
2. Remember that for maximum power
transfer
TH L
R R =
TH
TH
MX
R
V
P
4
2
=
This is a mixed sources problem
.... And it is simpler if we do Thevenin
at c - d and account for the 4k at the end
c
d
1
I
2
I
mA I loop 4 : 1
1
=
0 ) ( 4 2 2 : 2
1 2 2
'
= + + I I k kI kI loop
X
Controlling variable:
2
'
I I
X
=
] [ 8 4
1 2
V V mA I I
OC
= = =
Now the short circuit current
k R
TH
2 =
Remember now where the partition was made
k R
L
6 =
] [
3
8
] [
6 * 4
8
2
mW mW P
MX
= =
0
"
=
X
I
mA I
SC
4 =
V 8
D TRANSFERRE POWER MAXIMUM AND DETERMINE
L
R