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Submitted to :

Shuja Ahmad Taimori Sb


Super Heterodyne Receiver


Tuned Radio frequency Receiver Superheterodyne Receiver

TRF Receiver

Problems with TRF

TRF presented difficulties at higher frequencies. This was mainly because of the instability associated with high gain being achieved at one frequency by a multistage amplifier.


Heterodyne is a Greek word Hetero means different Dyne means power So heterodyne means different power

Heterodyne principle

Heterodyning is a radio signal processing technique invented in 1901 by Canadian inventor-engineer Reginald Fessenden, in which new frequencies are created by combining or mixing two signals. . Heterodyning creates two new frequencies, one is the sum of the two frequencies mixed, the other is their difference. These new frequencies are called heterodynes. Typically only one of the new frequencies is desired, and the other signal is filtered out of the output of the mixer

Super heterodyne receiver

The most important and widely used application of the heterodyne technique is in the super heterodyne receiver , invented by U.S. engineer Edwin Howard Armstrong in 1918. In this circuit, the incoming radio frequency signal from the antenna is mixed with a signal from a LO and converted by the heterodyne technique to a lower fixed frequency signal called the intermediate frequency(IF). This IF is amplified and filtered, before being applied to a detector which extracts the audio signal, which is sent to the loudspeaker.

Difference between TRF and Super het


Mixer Local oscillator If stage



Super heterodyne Receiver

RF Amplifier
To select the wanted frequency To reject interference such as the image frequency to reduce the noise figure of the receiver. The RF stage is normally a wideband RF amplifier tunable from approximately 540 KHZ to 1650 KHZ Mechanically tied to the local oscillator to ensure precise tuning.

Local Oscillator

The local oscillator is a variable oscillator capable of generating a signal from .995 MHZ to 2.105MHZ.


In super heterodyne receiver two frequencies are combined in a nonlinear signal-processing device such as a vacuum tube, transistor, or diode, usually called a mixer.

IF Stage
a. b.


d. e.

Two or three transformer with mutually tuned circuit. Most of the gain provided Most of the bandwidth provided for receiver Narrow bandwidth class A based. Selecting Range of frequency .455khz


The next process is in the detector stage, which eliminates one of the sideband still present and separate the RF from the audio components of the other sideband. The RF is filtered to ground , and audio is supplied or fed to the audio stages for amplification.

Tunings example
a) b)


d) e)

Select an AM station i.e. 640khz. Tune the RF amplifier to the lower end of the AM band. This also tune the local oscillator to predetermined frequency of 1095khz. Mix the 1095khz and 640khz 1.095 MHZ local oscillator frequency.

Tunings example

640 kHz AM station carrier frequency 455KH Z difference frequency. 1.735 MHZ sum frequency. Due to narrowband IF select 455KHZ and rejects all other frequencies. This rejection reduces the interference to other stations.


Selectivity and sensitivity of the super het Are usually fairly uniform throughout its tuning range and not subject to the variation That affects the TRF receiver. Reduce interference to other station.


Heterodyning is used very widely in communications engineering to generate new frequencies and move information from one frequency channel to another. Besides its use in the super heterodyne circuit which is found in almost all radio and television receivers, it is used in radio transmitters, modems, satellite communications and radar, radio telescopes, telemetry systems, cell phones, cable television converter boxes and microwave relays, metal detectors, atomic clocks, and military electronic countermeasures (jamming) systems.

The End