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Object Constraint Language

in Together Dan Massey Y&L Consulting

Picking up From Logicians

Follows 3242 presentation to go in depth on OCL and using OCL in tools The preconference tutorial used the slides from session 3242 as the first third of the presentation.

OCL Topics
OCL Basics
The LiquidLemons Example OCL in Together

Team Modeling Exercise

OCL Topics
OCL Basics
The LiquidLemons Example OCL in Together

Team Modeling Exercise

OCL is
Strongly typed declarative language
Small set of built-in types, including collections User-defined types and operators

OCL Basic Types


Boolean true or false Integer theoretically unlimited natural numbers, subtype of Real Real mathematical Real, no specific implementation implied String sequence of characters

Boolean Operations
a : Boolean
a and b not a a implies b a or b a=b

b : Boolean
a xor b a <> b

implies constraint: if a is true then b must be true

Numeric Operators
Comparison = equals < less <= less or equal
Math + addition * multiplication <> > >= not equals more more or equal

subtraction division

Every Type in OCL is an Object


a : Integer
a.mod(b) a.abs() a.min(b) a.floor()

b:Integer
a.div(b) a.max(b) a.round()

Operators are just infix notation operations.

String Operations
a : String
a=b a.concat(b) a.toLower() a.subString(1, 3)

b : String
a <> b a.size() a.toUpper()

Operations return new Strings.

OCL Conditional
OCL provides one conditional construct:
if <Boolean expression> then <expression> else <expression> endif No elseif or switch/case

OCL Operation Precedence


Grouping Path resolution Message notation Unary Multiplication/Division Addition/Subtraction Comparison = Logical Logical implication () ::
. -> also ^ ^^ - not * / + < > <= >= <> and or xor implies

User-Defined Types
Classes, Interfaces, etc. defined in the model
Users may overload infix and unary operators: Multiply Money by a Real Add two Distance values

OCL Collections
Refreshing our memories, we have: Collection Bag Sequence Set OrderedSet
OCL allows you to treat any instance like a collection. You can ask if a single attribute is empty.

Collections must by Typed


Set(Bid) Bag(String) Like generics in Java or templates in C++.

Collections Literals
Use curly brackets around comma lists to specify Collection literals.
Bag {sock, sock, shirt, sweater, sock} Sequence {abe, bob, bob, tim, zak} Set {16.0, 2.0, 64.0, 8.0, 128.0, 3.5} OrderedSet {1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128} You can also specify Collections of Collections.

Basic Collections Operations


a : Set(String)
a=c

b : String
a <> c

c : Set(String)

a->size()

a->count(b)

a->excludes(b) a->excludesAll(c) a->includes(b) a->includesAll(c) a->isEmpty() a->notEmpty() a->sum() -- contents are of type supporting +

More Collections Operations


OCL supports a wide range of Collection operations that vary by Collection type.
first(), last(), at(i : Integer), etc. for {ordered} collections union(), -, asSet(), including(), symmetricDifference(collection : Collection) are a sample

Flatten
Recursively adds the members of nested collections to a single collection.
context MyType def: a : Set(Set(Integer)) = Set {Set{1, 2, 3}, Set{3, 4, 5}, Set{4, 5, 6}} a->flatten() = Set{2, 3, 1, 5, 4, 6} -- no order

Collection Loops
OCL supports an iterate() operation for Collections. On top of that idea, OCL provides a set of Collection operations that accept expression. Examples: any(expression) exists(expression) collect(expression) one(expression) select(expression) reject(expression)

Other OCL Types


OclAny the root Type OclVoid the null Type undefined OclType a type, like Class in Java OCL provides operations for type identification.
Tuple group of named values Tuple {name : String = Dan, role : Role = Role::Speaker}

OCL Topics
OCL Basics
The LiquidLemons Example OCL in Together

Team Modeling Exercise

Liquid Lemons Domain

LL Invariants
context Sale -- a Sale has one or more items inv numberOfSaleItems : items->size() > 1

-- a Sale's subtotal may not be less than zero inv subtotalGreaterThanZero : subtotal().amount > 0.0 and subtotal().currency = Currency::USDollars

LL Pre and Post


context LiquidLemons::addLemonade(flavor : Flavor, size : DrinkSize) pre activeSale : currentSale->size() = 1 pre mustHaveFlavor : not flavor.oclIsUndefined() pre mustSpecifySize : not size.oclIsUndefined() post newLemonade : currentLemonade->size() = 1

LL Query

Collections Queries
context ItemAnalyzer::averagePrice() : Money body: items.basePrice()->sum() / items.basePrice()>size() context ItemAnalyzer::uniqueModDescriptions() : Set(String) body: items.modDescriptions() ->flatten()->asSet()

Composite Queries
Use small methods with single responsibilities to build up larger functions. -- the total we want is subtotal plus tax context Sale::total() : Money body: subtotal() + tax() -- tax is the subtotal times the local tax rate context Sale::tax() : Money body: subtotal() * Tax::localRate

Composite Queries Cont.


context Sale::subtotal() : Money body: items.price()->sum() context LineItem::price() : Money body: basePrice() + modsPrice() context LineItem::modsPrice() : Money body: modifiers.price()->sum()

Dont Do This
context LineItem::basePrice() : Money body: if size = DrinkSize::Small then if flavor = Flavor::Regular then Money::newInstance(1.23, Currency::USDollars) else Money::newInstance(1.73, Currency::USDollars) endif else if flavor = Flavor::Regular then Money::newInstance(2.43, Currency::USDollars) else Money::newInstance(3.13, Currency::USDollars) endif endif

Use Polymorphism
Little policy classes are an extension of the little operations idea. Smaller rules are easier to read.
context LargeRegularLemonade::basePrice() : Money body: Money::newInstance(2.43, Currency::USDollars) context SmallFlavoredLemonade::basePrice() : Money body: Money::newInstance(1.72, Currency::USDollars)

OCL Topics
OCL Basics
The LiquidLemons Example OCL in Together

Team Modeling Exercise

Where Does the OCL Go?

Use the named property fields and boxes. Shows up in generated docs and XMI export. Not visible in diagrams.

OCL Notes

Attach notes containing OCL to correct contexts. OCL is visible in the diagrams. Potential to clutter the model.

Together Designer

Syntax checked OCL in Constraint Notes that establish context.


Now in field test.

OCL Topics
OCL Basics
The LiquidLemons Example OCL in Together

Team Modeling Exercise

Domain Options
Tic-Tac-Toe Ants Electronic Voting Poem Golf Turtle Logo Dog Kennel