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# Resonance In

AC Circuits
3.1 Introduction
M M
M
h
An example of resonance in the form of
mechanical : oscillation
Potential energy change to kinetic energy than
kinetic energy will change back to potential
energy.
If there is no lost of energy cause by friction
potential energy is equal to kinetic energy.
mgh = mv
It will oscillate for a long time.
Ep=mgh
Ek= mv
v
Resonance in electrical
circuit
C
L
i
i
Ep= CV
Em= LI
Potential energy stored in capacitor change to
magnetic energy that stored in inductor. Then
magnetic energy change back to potential energy
stored in capacitor.
If there is no lost of energy by resistor potential
energy equal to magnetic energy
CV = LI
It will oscillate for a long time.
Characteristi
c of
resonance
circuit
The frequency response of a
circuit is maximum
The voltage Vs and
current I are in phase
The impedances is purely
resistive.
Power factor equal to one
Circuit reactance equal zero because capacitive and
inductive are equal in magnitude
At frequency resonance,
(1)
V
I
jXL
-jXC
CV = LI
We know
V = I * XL or V = I * XC
= I * L = I * 1/C
= I * 2fL = I / 2fC
Substitute into 1
C (2fLI ) = LI
f = L
C (2fL)
f = 1
2LC
CV = LI
Ideal case ( no
resistance)
Practical ( energy loss due
to resistance)
i
i
t
t
Main objective we analysis resonance circuits to find five resonance parameters :
a) Resonance frequency, o
Angular frequency when value of current or voltage is maximum
b) Half power frequency, 1 and 2
Frequency where current (or voltage) equal Imax/2 (or Vmax/2 ).
c) Quality factor, Q
Ratio of its resonant frequency to its bandwidth
d) Bandwidth, BW
Difference between half power frequency
3.3 Series Resonance
Circuits
R
VR
VL
R
j XL
- j XC
V
By KVL : V = VR + VL + VC
= VR + jVL jVC
At resonance XL = XC
Hence V = VR + 0
= VR
= IR * R
Vc
Figure 1
Series Resonance
Circuits
R
VR
VL
j XL
- j XC
V
Vc
Figure 1
Z = R + j X
L
- jX
C

= R + j (X
L
X
C
)
X
L
= 2f L
X
C
=
1
2f C
where
X
L
R
X
C
f
0
f
|Z|
(X
L
-X
C
)
f
f
0
|I|
|Z|
|I| =
|V|
|Z|
Resonance parameter for
series circuit
a) Resonant frequency,o
The resonance condition is
oL = 1 / oC or o = 1 / LC rad/s
since o = 2fo
fo = 1/ 2LC Hz

b) Half power frequencies
At certain frequencies = 1, 2, the half power frequencies are obtain by setting Z = 2R

R + (L 1/ C) = 2R

Solving for , we obtain
1 = - R/2L + (R/2L) + 1/LC rad/s
2 = R/2L + (R/2L) + 1/LC rad/s
Or in term of resonant parameter,
1 = o [ - 1/ 2Q + (1/ 2Q) + 1 ] rad/s
2 = o [ 1/ 2Q + (1/ 2Q) + 1 ] rad/s
c) Quality factor, Q
Ratio of its resonant frequency to its bandwidth.

Q = VL
VS
= [ I ] x XL
[ I ] x R
= L ; Q = XL
R R
= 2 fr L
R

Q = VC
V
= [ I ] x XC
[ I ] x R

= 1 ; Q = XC
C R
R
= 1
2 fr CR

or
d) Bandwidth, BW
BW = 2 1
= o [ 1+ (1/ 2Q) + 1/ 2Q ] - o [ 1+ (1/ 2Q) - 1/ 2Q ]
= o [ 1/ 2Q + 1/2Q ]
= o [2/ 2Q]
= o / Q
Q = oL /R = 1/ oCR
thus,
BW = R / L = o / Q
or, BW = oCR

3.4 Parallel Resonance
Circuits

## Resonance can be divided into 2:

a) Ideal parallel circuit
b) Practical parallel circuit
At least 3 important information that is needed to analyze to get the resonances
parameter:
In resonance frequency,
o
the imaginary parts of admittance,Y must be equal
to zero.
When in lower cut-off frequency,
1
and in higher cut-off frequency,
2
the
magnitude of admittance,Y must be equal to 2/R.
i
+
v
-
R C L
Ideal Parallel RLC circuit
o
Resonance parameter for
ideal RLC parallel circuit
R -jX
c
jX
L
Ideal Parallel RLC circuit
Y
T

,
_

+
L c X X
j
R
1 1 1
Y
T
=
) ( ) (
1 1

jB G
L
C j
R
+

,
_

+
Whereas G() is the real part called the conductance
and B() is the imaginary parts called the susceptance.
a) Resonant frequency,
o
Angular resonance frequency is when B()=0.
b) Lower cut-off angular frequency,
1
Produced when the imaginary parts = (-1/R)
s rad
LC
L
C
/
1
; 0
1
2 1 0

1
1
]
1

,
_

+

LC RC RC
R L
C
1
2
1
2
1
1 1
2
1

## c) Higher cut-off angular frequency, 2.

Produced when the imaginary parts = (1/R)
d) Quality Factor, Q
e) Bandwidth, BW

s rad
LC RC RC
R L
C
/
1
2
1
2
1
1 1
2
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

+
+

RC Q
L
C
R
L
R
Q
0
0

Q RC
BW
0
1 2
1

Duality Concept
R
VR
VL
j XL
- j XC
V
Vc
Figure 1
Series circuit
Parallel circuit
i
+
v
-
R C L
Ideal Parallel RLC circuit
Z = Z
1
+ Z
2
+ Z
3

Z = R + j X
L
- jX
C

Y = Y
1
+ Y
2
+ Y
3

Y

=
,
_

+
L c X X
j
R
1 1 1

,
_

+
L
C j
R

1 1
Y
Z = R + j (L )
C
1
Duality Concept
R
VR
VL
j XL
- j XC
V
Vc
Figure 1
Series circuit
Parallel circuit
i
+
v
-
R C L
Ideal Parallel RLC circuit

,
_

+
L
C j
R

1 1
Y

Z = R + j (L )
C
1
R

R
1
L

C

C

L

Duality Concept
R
VR
VL
j XL
- j XC
V
Vc
Figure 1
Series circuit
Parallel circuit
i
+
v
-
R C L
Ideal Parallel RLC circuit
1 = - R/2L + ((R/2L) + 1/LC) rad/s
2 = R/2L + ((R/2L) + 1/LC) rad/s

1 = - 1/2RC + ((1/2RC) + 1/LC) rad/s
2 = 1/2RC + ((1/2RC) + 1/LC) rad/s

Resonance parameter for
practical RLC parallel circuit
Practical Parallel RLC circuit
i
+
V
-
R
1
C
L
I
1
I
C
I
1
I
C
Z
1
= R
1
+ jX
L
= |Z
1
|/

|I
1
|cos
|
I
1
|
s
i
n

I
Resonance parameter for
practical RLC parallel circuit
Practical Parallel RLC circuit
i
+
V
-
R
1
C
L
I
1
I
C
I
1
I
C
Resonance occur when |I
1
|sin = I
C

|I
1
|cos
|
I
1
|
s
i
n

I
Resonance occur when |I
1
|sin = I
C

|I
1
|sin = I
C
|V|
|Z
1
|
x
X
L
|Z
1
|
|V|
=
X
C
X
L
|Z
1
|
2
=
X
C
1
2f
r
L
R
2
+ (2f
r
L)
2
= 2f
r
C
R
2
+ (2f
r
L)
2
L
=
C
(2f
r
L)
2
=
L
C
- R
2
1
1
]
1

,
_

2
1
2
1
L
R
LC
r
f

Q factor
X
L
R
2f
r
L
=
=
Q = current magnification
I
C
=
|I
1
|sin
I
=
|I
1
|cos
tan
=
R
I
1
I
C

|I
1
|cos
|
I
1
|
s
i
n

## Resonance parameter for

practical RLC parallel circuit
Ideal Parallel RLC circuit
i
+
V
-
R
1
C
L
Second approach to analyze this circuit is by changing the series
RL to parallel RL circuit.
The purpose of this transformation is to make it much more easier
to get the resonance parameter.
RL in series
R
l
L
R
l
jX
p
RL in parallel
p p
T
l
l l
l
l l
l l
T
l l T
jX R
Y
X
X R
j
R
jX R
jX R
Y
jX R Z
1 1
1 1 1
2 2
2
2
+
+
+
+

+
By matching equation Z
T
and Y
T
above, we can
get:
Or
By defining the quality factor,
l
l
p
l
l l
p
R
L R
R
R
X R
R
2
2
2 2
) ( +

and
and
l
l
p
l
l l
p
X
L R
X
X
X R
X
2
2
2 2
) ( +

l l
l
R
L
R
X
Q

R
p
and X
p
can be write as:
2
2
2
2
2
1
) 1 (
l
l
p
l l
l
l
l l p
Q
Q
L L
Q R
R
X
R R R
+

+ +
Resonance parameter
a) Angular resonance frequency,
o
b) Lower cut-off angular frequency,
1

Produced when the imaginary parts = (1/R)
L
C R
LC X
R
LC
l
l
l
2
0
2
2
1
1 1

s rad
C L C R C R
R L
C
p p p
/
1
2
1
2
1
1 1
2
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

## c) Higher cut-off angular frequency,

2
.
d) Quality Factor, Q
e) Bandwidth, BW
Produced when the imaginary parts = (1/R)
s rad
C L C R C R
R L
C
p p p
/
1
2
1
2
1
1 1
2
2
1
1
]
1

,
_

+
+

RC Q
L
C
R
L
R
Q
p
p
p

Q C R
BW
p
0
1 2
1