AC Circuits
3.1 Introduction
M M
M
h
An example of resonance in the form of
mechanical : oscillation
Potential energy change to kinetic energy than
kinetic energy will change back to potential
energy.
If there is no lost of energy cause by friction
potential energy is equal to kinetic energy.
mgh = mv
It will oscillate for a long time.
Ep=mgh
Ek= mv
v
Resonance in electrical
circuit
C
L
i
i
Ep= CV
Em= LI
Potential energy stored in capacitor change to
magnetic energy that stored in inductor. Then
magnetic energy change back to potential energy
stored in capacitor.
If there is no lost of energy by resistor potential
energy equal to magnetic energy
CV = LI
It will oscillate for a long time.
Characteristi
c of
resonance
circuit
The frequency response of a
circuit is maximum
The voltage Vs and
current I are in phase
The impedances is purely
resistive.
Power factor equal to one
Circuit reactance equal zero because capacitive and
inductive are equal in magnitude
At frequency resonance,
(1)
V
I
jXL
jXC
CV = LI
We know
V = I * XL or V = I * XC
= I * L = I * 1/C
= I * 2fL = I / 2fC
Substitute into 1
C (2fLI ) = LI
f = L
C (2fL)
f = 1
2LC
CV = LI
Ideal case ( no
resistance)
Practical ( energy loss due
to resistance)
i
i
t
t
Main objective we analysis resonance circuits to find five resonance parameters :
a) Resonance frequency, o
Angular frequency when value of current or voltage is maximum
b) Half power frequency, 1 and 2
Frequency where current (or voltage) equal Imax/2 (or Vmax/2 ).
c) Quality factor, Q
Ratio of its resonant frequency to its bandwidth
d) Bandwidth, BW
Difference between half power frequency
3.3 Series Resonance
Circuits
R
VR
VL
R
j XL
 j XC
V
By KVL : V = VR + VL + VC
= VR + jVL jVC
At resonance XL = XC
Hence V = VR + 0
= VR
= IR * R
Vc
Figure 1
Series Resonance
Circuits
R
VR
VL
j XL
 j XC
V
Vc
Figure 1
Z = R + j X
L
 jX
C
= R + j (X
L
X
C
)
X
L
= 2f L
X
C
=
1
2f C
where
X
L
R
X
C
f
0
f
Z
(X
L
X
C
)
f
f
0
I
Z
I =
V
Z
Resonance parameter for
series circuit
a) Resonant frequency,o
The resonance condition is
oL = 1 / oC or o = 1 / LC rad/s
since o = 2fo
fo = 1/ 2LC Hz
b) Half power frequencies
At certain frequencies = 1, 2, the half power frequencies are obtain by setting Z = 2R
R + (L 1/ C) = 2R
Solving for , we obtain
1 =  R/2L + (R/2L) + 1/LC rad/s
2 = R/2L + (R/2L) + 1/LC rad/s
Or in term of resonant parameter,
1 = o [  1/ 2Q + (1/ 2Q) + 1 ] rad/s
2 = o [ 1/ 2Q + (1/ 2Q) + 1 ] rad/s
c) Quality factor, Q
Ratio of its resonant frequency to its bandwidth.
Q = VL
VS
= [ I ] x XL
[ I ] x R
= L ; Q = XL
R R
= 2 fr L
R
Q = VC
V
= [ I ] x XC
[ I ] x R
= 1 ; Q = XC
C R
R
= 1
2 fr CR
or
d) Bandwidth, BW
BW = 2 1
= o [ 1+ (1/ 2Q) + 1/ 2Q ]  o [ 1+ (1/ 2Q)  1/ 2Q ]
= o [ 1/ 2Q + 1/2Q ]
= o [2/ 2Q]
= o / Q
Q = oL /R = 1/ oCR
thus,
BW = R / L = o / Q
or, BW = oCR
3.4 Parallel Resonance
Circuits
,
_
+
L c X X
j
R
1 1 1
Y
T
=
) ( ) (
1 1
jB G
L
C j
R
+
,
_
+
Whereas G() is the real part called the conductance
and B() is the imaginary parts called the susceptance.
a) Resonant frequency,
o
Angular resonance frequency is when B()=0.
b) Lower cutoff angular frequency,
1
Produced when the imaginary parts = (1/R)
s rad
LC
L
C
/
1
; 0
1
2 1 0
1
1
]
1
,
_
+
LC RC RC
R L
C
1
2
1
2
1
1 1
2
1
,
_
+
+
RC Q
L
C
R
L
R
Q
0
0
Q RC
BW
0
1 2
1
Duality Concept
R
VR
VL
j XL
 j XC
V
Vc
Figure 1
Series circuit
Parallel circuit
i
+
v

R C L
Ideal Parallel RLC circuit
Z = Z
1
+ Z
2
+ Z
3
Z = R + j X
L
 jX
C
Y = Y
1
+ Y
2
+ Y
3
Y
=
,
_
+
L c X X
j
R
1 1 1
,
_
+
L
C j
R
1 1
Y
Z = R + j (L )
C
1
Duality Concept
R
VR
VL
j XL
 j XC
V
Vc
Figure 1
Series circuit
Parallel circuit
i
+
v

R C L
Ideal Parallel RLC circuit
,
_
+
L
C j
R
1 1
Y
Z = R + j (L )
C
1
R
R
1
L
C
C
L
Duality Concept
R
VR
VL
j XL
 j XC
V
Vc
Figure 1
Series circuit
Parallel circuit
i
+
v

R C L
Ideal Parallel RLC circuit
1 =  R/2L + ((R/2L) + 1/LC) rad/s
2 = R/2L + ((R/2L) + 1/LC) rad/s
1 =  1/2RC + ((1/2RC) + 1/LC) rad/s
2 = 1/2RC + ((1/2RC) + 1/LC) rad/s
Resonance parameter for
practical RLC parallel circuit
Practical Parallel RLC circuit
i
+
V

R
1
C
L
I
1
I
C
I
1
I
C
Z
1
= R
1
+ jX
L
= Z
1
/
I
1
cos

I
1

s
i
n
I
Resonance parameter for
practical RLC parallel circuit
Practical Parallel RLC circuit
i
+
V

R
1
C
L
I
1
I
C
I
1
I
C
Resonance occur when I
1
sin = I
C
I
1
cos

I
1

s
i
n
I
Resonance occur when I
1
sin = I
C
I
1
sin = I
C
V
Z
1

x
X
L
Z
1

V
=
X
C
X
L
Z
1

2
=
X
C
1
2f
r
L
R
2
+ (2f
r
L)
2
= 2f
r
C
R
2
+ (2f
r
L)
2
L
=
C
(2f
r
L)
2
=
L
C
 R
2
1
1
]
1
,
_
2
1
2
1
L
R
LC
r
f
Q factor
X
L
R
2f
r
L
=
=
Q = current magnification
I
C
=
I
1
sin
I
=
I
1
cos
tan
=
R
I
1
I
C
I
1
cos

I
1

s
i
n
+
By matching equation Z
T
and Y
T
above, we can
get:
Or
By defining the quality factor,
l
l
p
l
l l
p
R
L R
R
R
X R
R
2
2
2 2
) ( +
and
and
l
l
p
l
l l
p
X
L R
X
X
X R
X
2
2
2 2
) ( +
l l
l
R
L
R
X
Q
R
p
and X
p
can be write as:
2
2
2
2
2
1
) 1 (
l
l
p
l l
l
l
l l p
Q
Q
L L
Q R
R
X
R R R
+
+ +
Resonance parameter
a) Angular resonance frequency,
o
b) Lower cutoff angular frequency,
1
Produced when the imaginary parts = (1/R)
L
C R
LC X
R
LC
l
l
l
2
0
2
2
1
1 1
s rad
C L C R C R
R L
C
p p p
/
1
2
1
2
1
1 1
2
1
1
1
]
1
,
_
,
_
+
+
RC Q
L
C
R
L
R
Q
p
p
p
Q C R
BW
p
0
1 2
1