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Staff and students from Faculty of Social Sciences, KASERTSART UNIVERSITY, BANGKOK, THAILAND

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Malays

Chinese

Indian

Sabah&Sarawak Indigenous Natives

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Ethnic Relations in Malaysia

Presented by
BOON Jong Fook Department of Social Sciences Malaysia Teachers Education Institute JITRA Campus KEDAH MALAYSIA

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Ethnic Relations in Malaysia

ETHNIC IN MALAYSIA
THE BACKGROUND

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Map of Malaysia

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MALAYS
Today, the Malays, Malaysia's largest ethnic group, make up more than 50% of the population. In Malaysia, the term Malay refers to a person who practices Islam and Malay traditions, speaks the Malay language and whose ancestors are Malays. Their conversion to Islam from Hinduism and Theravada Buddhism began in the 1400s, largely influenced by the decision of the royal court of Melaka. The Malays are known for their gentle mannerisms and rich arts heritage.

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CHINESE
The second largest ethnic group, the Malaysian Chinese

form about 25% of the population. Mostly descendents of Chinese immigrants during the 19th century, the Chinese are known for their diligence and keen business sense. The three sub-groups who speak a different dialect of the Chinese language are the Hokkien who lives predominantly on the northern island of Penang; the Cantonese who lives predominantly in the capital city Kuala Lumpur; and the Mandarin-speaking group who lives predominantly in the southern state of Johor.

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Ethnic Relations in Malaysia

INDIAN
The smallest of three main ethnic groups, the Malaysian

Indians form about 10% of the population. Most are descendents of Tamil-speaking South Indian immigrants who came to the country during the British colonial rule. Lured by the prospect of breaking out of the Indian caste system, they came to Malaysia to build a better life. Predominantly Hindus, they brought with them their colourful culture such as ornate temples, spicy cuisine and exquisite sarees

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Ethnic Relations in Malaysia

SARAWAK
Collectively known as the Dayaks, the Iban, Bidayuh and Orang Ulu are the major ethnic groups in the state of Sarawak. Dayak, which means upstream or inland, is used as a blanket term by the Islamic coastal population for over 200 tribal groups. Typically, they live in longhouses, traditional community homes that can house 20 to 100 families.

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Ethnic Relations in Malaysia

SABAH
The largest indigenous ethnic groups of Sabah's

population are the Kadazan Dusun, the Bajau and the Murut.

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INDIGENOUS ETHNIC
Orang Asli is a general term used for any indigenous groups that are found in Peninsular Malaysia. They are divided into three main tribal groups: Negrito, Senoi and Proto-Malay. The Negrito usually lives in the north, the Senoi in the middle and the Proto-Malay in the south. Each group or sub-group has its own language and culture. Some are fishermen, some farmers and some are semi-nomadic.

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Concepts of Unity and Integration


National Unity refers to the uniting of various groups

that have different social and cultural backgrounds, into one physical entity.

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National Unity
The unity that exists in the country is founded upon

power sharing, a democratic government, sound economy distribution and cultural tolerance.

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Example
Uniting Sabah, Sarawak and the Peninsula into one

country or federation, for example, is the effort at achieving national unity.

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Integration
The concept of integration is wider than that.
It is a process of uniting groups with different

backgrounds into one entity bound by common norms, values and interests.

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Integration
Therefore, National integration is more an abstract

process, a coming or binding together that is genuine and time-consuming.

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Concept of Plural Society


According J.S. Furnival, the plural society is

characterized by ethnic groups who live under one political unit ( a country) but are not integrated.

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Concept of Plural Society


Every group has its own language, culture, religion,

values, thinking and way of life.

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Social Characteristics of Plural Society


Diversity of Culture
The physical separation Identification of ethnic by employment

Lack of social contact


The existence of a dominant group politically

J.S Furnival 1948

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The Theory of Racial Relations


The process of Integration

Low integration

High integration

Segregation

Accommodation

Acculturation

Assimilation

Amalgamation

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Segregation
This is a relation that has the characteristics of a split

among the ethnic groups in a country. Splits occurs in residence, school system, transportation For example: The Apartheid Policy that was practiced before in South Africa

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Accommodation
This is a process where the ethnic groups are aware of

each others norms and values but they continue to safeguard their own living culture. However, they live in harmony and respect one and another.

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Accommodation

For example: Ethnic group of Germans, French and Italians living in Switzerland who accommodate one another and live in peaceful co-existence

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Acculturation (Cultural Assimilation)


This is a process when people from a minority group

accept the norms, values and patterns of behavior (culture) of the majority group without changing their original cultural elements.

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Assimilation (Structural Assimilation)


This concept of assimilation is about the entry into a

dominant society through friendship and close connection.

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Assimilation (Structural Assimilation)


The degree of assimilation of the minority groups

varies, that is, based on physical differences (like the colour of the skin and the degree to which the cultural features differ from that of the dominant group).

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Amalgamation

This is a process that happens when culture or races mixes to from a type of new culture and races. For example: Inter-marriage between ethnic groups or races.

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In Conclude
All of the five process above portray how minority

groups become part of the main stream of society. The presence of accommodation in a society reflects that a society is in a situation of merging together.

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In Conclude
However a situation of real integration can only be

achieved starting with acculturation, assimilation and finally amalgamation.

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Integration

Acculturation

Assimilation

Amalgamation

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Question
1.The question now is at which stage of the process is the Malaysian society. 2. Is the Malaysian society still at the accommodation stage or at a higher state than that.

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What is our speciality, then?

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Lets sing Rasa Sayang* together


Rasa sayang hey rasa sayang sayang hey

Hey lihat nona jauh rasa sayang sayang hey (repeat) (Pantun)

Buah cempedak di luar pagar Ambillah galah tolong jolokkan Sayalah budak baru belajar Kalaulah salah tunjukkan

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Thats about all for the moment


Thank you so much for your kind attention and my sincere apology for any shortcomings, if any; and last but not least.....

TERIMA KASIH
and

KHOBKHUN KHRAP
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