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Organisational Behaviour Presentation

David Sharp 11000085 3rd of March 2012

Structure
Employee Engagement definition
Working conditions Employee skills Organisational working life Power Inequalities and Exploitation

Job Enrichment - definition


Working conditions Employee skills Organisational working life
Power Inequalities and Exploitation

Employee Engagement
Def. individuals involvement with, satisfaction with and enthusiasm for the work they do.
(Robbins & Judge 2008, pp.21)

- Relatively modern term, but initial studies show it may lead to higher levels of productivity, customer satisfaction, and profit. (Harter et al. 2002) - However, concern as to the usefulness/redundancy of perhaps artificially discrete definitions where reality is more fluid with cross-over. (Rhoades and Eisenberger 2002)

Employee Engagement
Effects on:
Work conditions Saks (2006) divides EE into job engagement and organisational engagement. Antecedents of EE (JE and OE) are: perceived support from the organisation Job characteristics Procedural justice

Employee Engagement
Consequences of EE (JE and OE) - Job satisfaction - Organisational commitment - -ve correlation for intention to quit

Saks (2006)

Employee Engagement
Effects on:
Employee skills Rama Devi (2009) argues that EE is both a two way street (pp.3) and a win-win situation.
It forms a positive feedback loop where as employee engages more, corporate performance and culture improve, and so employees feel more invested in emotionally by the company and so they become more engaged. Companies more likely to help engaged employees skill-up, and skilled-up employees become more engaged.

Employee Engagement
Effects on:
Organisational working life
Many theorists relate the effects of EE on individuals and therefore working life of organisations as being akin to Csikzentmihalyis concept of Flow (1975). Wildermuth and Paulken (2008) feel that connections (or the match) between organizational, leadership, job, and individual characteristics is particularly relevant for engagement.

Loehr (2005) suggests that cultural changes that benefit not only the organisation but also the individual leading to better health, happiness and enthusiasm, as well as allowing the individual to become of greater value to their employer.

Power and Exploitation


Is EE just a fad? Is it ethical to try to alter someones mental and motivational state? Manager/Worker, Employer/Employee relationships are not equal. What if employees do not wish to be engaged? Isnt work what we do to support our life elsewhere? A lack of choice. Which is better an engaged low-ability individual, or an unengaged high-ability individual? Are organisations really committed to the individuals in a reciprocal way? Branham (2005) says that about 50% of US employees are not engaged, and 25% are actively dis-engaged. When is good enough, good enough? If standards are high enough, isnt satisficing sufficient? (CAA, 2012)

Job Enrichment
Def. Vertical Expansion of Jobs worker controls the planning, execution and evaluation of the work (Robbins and Judge, 2008)
Managers enrich employees jobs by increasing/improving skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. (Hackman and Suttle, 1977) Job Enrichment is an attempt to motivate employees by giving them the opportunity to use the range of their abilities.it is an ideal which was developed by the American Psychologist Frederick Herzberg in the 1950s.

Job Enrichment
Effects on:
Work conditions: work-life balance!
Increased autonomy and worker input in job descriptions has lead to the development of flexitime, job sharing and telecommuting, positively correlate with company performance (Sanchez et al. 2007) These have allowed people to work around their personal circumstances and lifestyle. Interesting effects on traditionally gendered workplaces (CAA 2012).

Job Enrichment
Effects on:
Employee Skills
Task and skill variety lead employees to develop skills more traditionally those of the manager such as decision making (Scott-Ladd 2006), but level and extent appropriate is linked to employees abilities. Are these new skills relevant to employee, or are employees that are under-utilised employees targeted for Job Enrichment?

Job Enrichment
Effects on:
Organisational working life Reduction in staff turnover leads to greater continuity of organisational culture. Women better than men at motivating and encouraging job enriched individuals and self-managing teams (Maxwell 2008). Flexitime, job share and telecommuting can lead to reduction in coworker contact and reduce/change OWL -improved worker performance but effect on employee commitment unclear (Luna-Arocas and Camps 2007) job stability may be more relevant as regards employee commitment.

Power and Exploitation


What if people want to maintain work-life separation? What if remuneration is not linked with enrichment? What if enrichment is seen as a career path that leads nowhere? Isnt doing ones job, for the contracted pay, enough?

Conclusion: EE and JE
Do Employee Engagement and Job Enrichment compliment each other? Do Engaged Employees also need Job Enrichment? Is Enrichment just a pathway to Engagement? Are these two measures functionally different, or sufficiently linked to be part of the same effect?

References
Branham, L. 2005 Are you engaged?. Leadership Excellence, Vol. 22 No.12, pp.12. Csikzentmihalyi, M. 1975. Beyond Boredom and Anxiety, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA. CAA, 2012. Informal Interview regarding satisficing in a safety industry context Loehr, J. 2005. Become fully engaged. Leadership Excellence, Vol. 22 No.2, pp.14 Hackman, J. and Suttle, J. 1977. Improving Life At Work. Pp.138 Harter, J. K., Schimdt, F. L. and Hayes, T. L. 2002. Business Unit-Level Relationship Between Employee Satisfaction, Employee Engagement and Business Ourcomes: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 87, Iss. 2, pp. 268-279 Luna-Arocas, R. and Camps, J. 2007. A model of high performance work practices and turnover intentions. Personnel Review, Vol. 37 Iss: 1, pp.26 46 Maxwell, J. 2008. Work system design to improve the economic performance of the firm. Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 14 Iss: 3, pp.432 - 446 Rama Devi, V. 2009. Employee engagement is a two-way street. Human Resource Management International Digest, Vol. 17 Iss: 2, pp.3 -4 Robbins, S and Judge, T. 2008. Essentials of Organizational Behavior. Pearson Education Ltd. Rhoades, L. and Eisenberger, R. 2002. Perceived Organizational Support: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 87, Iss. 4, pp.698-714 Saks, A. 2006. Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 21 Iss: 7, pp.600 619 Snchez, A., Prez, M., Carnicer, P. and Jimnez, M. 2007. Teleworking and workplace flexibility: a study of impact on firm performance. Personnel Review, Vol. 36 Iss: 1, pp.42 64 Scott-Ladd, B., Travaglione, A. and Marshall, V. 2006. Causal inferences between participation in decision making, task attributes, work effort, rewards, job satisfaction and commitment. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 27 Iss: 5, pp.399 - 414 Wildermuth, C. and Pauken, P. 2008. A perfect match: decoding employee engagement Part I: Engaging cultures and leaders. Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 40 Iss: 3, pp.122 - 128