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Principles of Supervision

Providing Effective Leadership Chapter 9

Learning Goals

Define leadership and describe the difference between a leader and a supervisor Identify the traits that may help you become a successful leader Define charisma and its key components Describe the skills of a visionary leader

Learning Goals

Differentiate between task centered and people centered leadership behaviors Identify and describe three types of participative leadership styles Explain situational leadership Describe situations in which leadership is irrelevant


The ability an individual demonstrates to influence others to act in a particular way through direction, encouragement, sensitivity, consideration and support Goes beyond formal positions

Are You a Leader Because You Are a Supervisor?


Formally appointed Have legitimate power can reward and punish Power comes from the authority inherent in their position Supervisors should be leaders!!!!!!!! But

Are You a Leader Because You Are a Supervisor?

Those who emerge from a group to be come leaders can influence others to perform beyond the actions dictated by formal authority Leader/supervisor

Anyone who supervisors should be a leader But there are leaders who are not capable of supervisory functions and should not be given formal authority

Can There Ever Be No Leader?

Yes .. there are factors that act as substitutes Employee characteristics

Experience Skill level and training Need for autonomy

Can There Ever Be No Leader?

Job characteristics

Well-defined and routine Intrinsically satisfying

Organizational Characteristics

Explicit and formalized goals Rigid rules and procedures Cohesive work groups

Are People Born to Lead?

Look at traits that separate leaders from nonleaders If traits do separate the two we should be able to identify characteristics and traits of successful leaders

Six Traits of Effective Leaders

Drive Honesty and Moral Character Intelligence

Relevant Knowledge

Self-confidence Desire to influence others

Six Traits of Effective Leaders

Drive reflects a persons desire to exert a high level of effort and complete a task Desire to influence others willingness to accept responsibility Honesty and moral character Self-confidence Intelligence Relevant knowledge job relevant employee relevant

Leaders and Charisma

Is a magnetism that inspires followers to go the extra mile to reach goals that are perceived as difficult or unpopular

The Charismatic Leader

Has an idealized goal that they ant to achieve Can communicate the goal to others in a way that they can understand Strong convictions about their goal Often do things in an unconventional way Are assertive and confident, can convince followers that they know best

The Charismatic Leader

High self-monitoring - are good actors, can easily adjust their behavior to different situations Do not like the status quo, prefer goals that will significantly improve the way things are and are committed to achieving that goal Are often perceived as agents of radical change

The Charismatic Leader

People working for them are motivated to exert more effort and, because they like their leader, express more job satisfaction

Can Leaders Be Trained Yes

A person needs certain skills

Technical skills - the procedures and techniques involved in the job process, become an expert, people will follow if they have confidence Conceptual skills you must be able to see the big picture, you must be able to make sense out of chaos harder to teach this skill

Can Leaders Be Trained Yes

Networking Skills

Ability to socialize and interact with those associated to the unit Use this skill to take care of people, get things needed to do the job Your employees will know you can fight for them

Can Leaders Be Trained Yes

Human-relations skills - critical

Ability to work with, understand, and motivate those around you Effectively communicate with, and listen to your employees Includes the people skills of coaching, facilitating, and supporting others Includes honesty and values Needed to influence others

Leadership Behaviors and Styles

Traits and skills are difficult for employees (followers) to detect, they will define your leadership by the behaviors they see in you.

Supervisory Leadership Behaviors



Free Rein

Leader/ in total control



Employees in


control of those things that affect them

Task-Centered Behavior

A strong tendency to emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job Employees are viewed mainly as a means to an end The supervisors major concern is ensuring that they know precisely what is expected of them

Task-Centered Behavior

These individuals may not be leaders but are rule, regulation and goal enforcers Often exhibit Theory X, autocratic, or authoritarian leadership styles

Behavior = Leadership Style

Autocratic Leadership Style

Task-Centered Behavior

Autocratic Leader

Task master Centralized decision making Gives orders and expects results Performs negative reinforcement Common in all types of organizations Definitely a Theory X type manager

People-Centered Behavior

Emphasizes interpersonal relations with those you lead by taking a personal interest in their needs Shows trust, friendship, and provides supportive interactions with employees Often exhibit Theory Y, participative managerial traits

Participative Leadership

The leadership style of an individual who actively seeks input from followers for many of the activities in the organization Two types

Consultative-participative style Democratic-participative style

Behavior = Leadership Style

Consultative-Participative Leadership Style Democratic-Participative Leadership Style

People-Centered Behavior

Consultative-Participative Leadership

Leader seeks input, hears concerns and issues of followers Uses input as an information-seeking exercise Makes the final decision


Leader seeks input and does all the things listed under ConsultativeParticipative Leadership Allows workers to have a say Decisions are made by the group

Free-Reign Leadership

Also known as Laissez-faire leadership, hands off management Give employees total autonomy to make the decisions that will affect them After establishing overall objectives and general guidelines, the employees are free to establish their own plans for achieving their goals

Free-Reign Leadership

Does not imply lack of leadership, rather that the leader removes himself or herself from the day to day activities but is available to deal with the exceptions This style works well with highly trained professionals

What Behaviors Should You Exhibit?

Evidence points to people-centered leadership as the preferred style FOR most employees While people-oriented leadership may make a happier work force it does not necessarily produce results

Effective Leadership

There are several key situational models of leadership

Fiedler Contingency Model Houses Path-Goal Theory Situational Leadership

Situational Leadership

Employee Characteristics
Experience Ability Personality Group Cohesiveness


Productivity & Employee Satisfaction

Goal Clarity Task Structure


Job Characteristics

Fiedler Contingency Model

Effective leadership is a function of:

A proper match between the leaders style of interacting with followers The degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader

Houses Path-Goal Theory

It is the leaders job to assist his or her followers in attaining their goals Is accomplished by providing necessary direction and or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the group or organizational goals Leader clarifies the path to help employees achieve their goals by reducing potential roadblocks and pitfalls

Situational Leadership

No single leadership style fits every case Focus is on leadership styles that adjust to specific situations and places attention on employee readiness Readiness is defined as the ability and willingness of an employee to complete a task

Situational Leadership
High R3 Skill Level R1 R2 R4

Low Willingness to Perform


Situational Leadership


Selling R2

Relationship Behavior

Delegating R4

Telling R1 High


Task Behavior R3 R2 Readiness of Employee

Situational Leadership

R1: Employee both unable and unwilling to do job

Telling style required, task behavior

R2: Employee is unable to do the job, but willing to perform the tasks

Selling style required

Situational Leadership

R3: Employee is able to do job, but unwilling to be told by a leader what to do

Participating style of leadership required

R4: Employee is both able and willing to do job

Delegating style of leadership required

Contemporary Leadership Roles

Credibility The most dominant component is honesty

Employees judge their supervisors in terms of their honesty, competence and ability to inspire

Trust the belief in the integrity, character, and ability of a leader

Five Dimensions of Trust

Integrity: honesty and truthfulness Competence: knowledge and skills Consistency: reliability and good judgement Loyalty: willingness to protect and save face for a person Openness: willingness to share information

Trust is Important

Empowerment has reduced or removed many of the traditional control mechanisms used to monitor employees Employees are increasingly free to schedule their own work, evaluate their own performance, and participate in team-member hiring decisions Trust is crucial

Building Trust

Practice openness be candid, disclose relevant information Be fair give credit where credit is due, be impartial, objective Speak your feelings be real, human Tell the truth critically important if you want trust

Building Trust

Show consistency Fulfill your promises keep your word Maintain confidences be discrete, dont betray confidences Demonstrate confidence - show technical and professional ability, as well as communication, negotiating, and other interpersonal skills

Leading Through Empowerment

Empowerment is needed to get quick decisions from people who are most knowledgeable about the issues Restructuring and downsizing has left many supervisors with too wide spans of control, they have no choice but to empower

Leading Through Empowerment

Sharing power and responsibility by showing trust, providing vision, removing performance-blocking barriers, offering encouragement, motivating and coaching employees

Leadership Issues

Cultural issues different cultures lead differently Gender issues men and women lead differently

Leadership Issues

Women tend to lead in a more democratic style Encourage employee participation and are willing to share their positional power Influence others through charisma, expertise, contacts, and interpersonal skill Open communications and trusting relationships

Leadership Issues

Men tend to use a task-centered leadership style Rely on positional power to control activities Tend to dominate how they influence others

Transactional Leader

Guide or motivate employees by clarifying their roles and task requirements

Transformational Leader

An approach built on top of transactional supervision Inspires followers to transcend their own selfinterests for the good of the organization Can have a profound effect on followers Pays attention to concerns and developmental needs of followers Is able to excite, arouse, and inspire followers to put out extra effort

Principles of Supervision
Communicating Effectively Chapter 10

Learning Goals

Define communication and the communication process Contrast formal and informal communication Explain how electronic communications affect the supervisors job List barriers to effective communication

Learning Goals

Describe techniques for overcoming communication barriers List the requirements for active listening Explain what behaviors are necessary for providing effective feedback

Communication Facts

Words mean different things to different people The initiation of a message is no assurance that it is received or understood as intended Communications often lose much of their accuracy as they are transmitted and translated

Communication Facts

Communication is much more than the spoken word or even the written word Understanding is the goal Involves the spoken word, the written word, grammar, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, the whole ball of wax


The transference and understanding of meaning from a sender to a receiver Communication can take place without agreement between sender and receiver Do not equate effective communication with agreement

Methods of Communication

Two Types

Formal Informal

Berlos Communication Model

Communication: The transference of meaning and understanding

Nonverbal Sender Verbal Receiver

Feedback Barriers Barriers

Formal Communication

Addresses task-related issues and tends to follow the organizations authority chain Used to give orders, provide advice, listen to suggestions, interact with employees Occurs via speech, written documents, electronic, media and nonverbal behavior

Informal Communication

Can move in any direction Skips authority levels Is likely to satisfy social needs as it is to facilitate task accomplishments The grapevine

Oral Communication

One-to-one with an employee A speech to a department A problem solving session with a group Phone conversations

Oral Communication


Speed and nonverbal language information transferred quickly and is enhanced by nonverbal cues such as tone, mood, and except for phone conversations gestures and facial expressions Positive symbolic value More personal, intimate caring Can build trust, create openness

Written Communication

Message is intended to be official

Performance reviews Departmental reports

Message has long-implications Used for introducing changes new procedures

Written Communication


Provides a reliable, provable , paper trail for decisions or actions that are called into question Reduces ambiguity

Written Communication

Bad - Obsessive documentation can:

Take too much time Lead to risk avoidance Create a a highly politicized work environment Cause task completion to become subordinate to a CYA mentality

Electronic Communication

E-mail Voice mail Electronic paging Cellular phones Video conferencing Modem-based transmissions

Electronic Communication

Increase a supervisors communication options and abilities

Messages to and from employees Massive speed Constant contact Massive monitoring possibilities Great networking possibilities with superiors, subordinates, suppliers, and customers

Nonverbal Communication

Body Language

Gestures and facial expressions can communicate aggression, fear, shyness, arrogance, joy, and anger Can account for 55% oh how a message is interpreted

Nonverbal Communication

Verbal Intonation

The emphasis someone gives to words or phrases Soft, smooth tone is vastly different from a harsh or abrasive tone Can account for 38% of how a message is interpreted

Yes thats right words only count for 7% of how a message is interpreted

Informal Communication

Is active in all organizations Where employees get most of their information Usually only 75% accurate The Rumor Mill Grapevine Too powerful to stop

Informal Communication

Useful to provide insight to employees concerns, fears Can be used to spread (transmit) the truth Can be used to identify issues that employees consider important Can help make sense of limited information

Is there a preferred medium?

Face-to face transmits the most information because of nonverbal possibilities Telephone follows because of tonal inflection Followed by e-mail, memos, letters, fliers, bulletins and general reports

Is there a preferred medium?

The more ambiguous and complicated the message, the more a sender should rely on a rich communication medium Supervisors dont always know to do this

Barriers to Effective Communication

Language Listening Habits Lack of Feedback
The message as envisioned by sender The message as interpreted by receiver

Perception Role Requirements Information Medium Lack of Honesty Emotions

Barriers to Effective Communication


Age Education Cultural background Diverse backgrounds in general Use of specialized technical language Vertical differences incentive = manipulation, goal = control

Barriers to Effective Communication

Listening habits

Hearing is not listening Poor listening skills may be present Distractions from listening noise, background, tasks Emotions can cloud listening

Barriers to Effective Communication


We dont seek it We dont provide it

Barriers to Effective Communication


Attitudes, interests, experiences, and expectations determine how you process, organize and interpret your surroundings We all have selective perception This can distort our communications to and from others

Barriers to Effective Communication


Behavior patterns that go with positions people occupy Positions can create jargon (specialized language) Requires role-player to interpret events selectively

Barriers to Effective Communication

Information Medium

Choice of medium can be critical Media differ in the richness of information a measure of the information that is transmitted based on multiple information cues (words, posture, facial expressions, gestures, intonations), immediate feedback, and the personal touch

Hierarchy of Information Richness

Level of Richness Richest Type of Message Complex Ambiguous Information Medium

Face-to-face talk Telephone Electronic Mail Memo, letters Fliers, bulletins, General reports


Simple Clear

Barriers to Effective Communication


If employees dont trust you, communication will be poor Saying what you think others want to hear creates a barrier due to this Creates tension and distrust

Barriers to Effective Communication


Employees only see the emotion not the total message Rational and objective thinking can be replaced by emotional judgments (rage)

Improving Communication

Think first! Constrain emotions Learn to listen Tailor language to the receiver Match words and actions Seek and provide feedback Participate in assertiveness training

Assertiveness Training

Designed to make people more open and self-expressive so they can confront issues without being rude or thoughtless This training can teach verbal and nonverbal behaviors that can enhance communication

Active Listening


Requires you to concentrate intensely on what the speaker is saying You must tune out all other thoughts You must summarize and integrate what has been said, and put it in the context of what has preceded it

Active Listening


Put yourself in the other persons shoes Try to understand what the speaker wants to communicate rather that what you want to hear Suspend your own thoughts and emotions, adjust to the speakers world

Active Listening


Listen objectively without judging

Take responsibility for completeness

Do whatever it takes to get the fullintended meaning from the speakers communication

Developing Effective Listening Skills

Be motivated Make eye contact Show interest Avoid distracting actions Show empathy Take in the whole picture Ask questions

Developing Effective Listening Skills

Paraphrase Dont interrupt Integrate what is being said Dont overtalk Confront your biases Make smooth transitions from between speaker and listener Be natural

Importance of Feedback

Positive feedback

Likely to be given promptly and enthusiastically More readily and accurately perceived Fits with what people wish to hear and already believe Often avoided, delayed or distorted Should be used when supported by hard data

Negative feedback

How Do You Give Effective Feedback

Focus on specific behaviors Keep feedback impersonal Keep feedback goal oriented Make feedback well timed Ensure understanding

Have receiver rephrase back to you

Direct negative feedback toward behavior that the receiver can control