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MICA R&D Project

Human-Machine Interaction
/ Interazione Uomo-Machina/ ?

by Adam Maria Gadomski


E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it URL: http://erg4146.casaccia.enea.it/ ENEA, C.R.Casaccia

18 November 1999

On the rights of the web white paper (Intell.Prop.) - ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999.

MICA Project
Human-Machine Interaction from the Systemic and Cognitive Perspective
Contribution to the MICA 2.8.3.3 Task D: Realization of an Integrated Modeling Environment for the Hardware/Software/Human Components of Plant Control Room Systems : Study on a Meta-Modeling Frameworks. http://erg4146.casaccia.enea.it/

Presentation outline

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible Solutions

Conclusions

"Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler. [Albert Einstein]


ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Preface
This my activity have been focused on a preliminary study of the human mental errors of industrial operators involved in the control and supervisory of high-risk complex technological systems. It deals with the identification of human mental errors and possibilities of their mitigation through an application of intelligent computer decision support systems.

Methodology

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible Solutions

Heuristic application of the TOGA (Top-down Object-based Goaloriented Approach) methodology to the problem identification. Application of the IPK conceptual framework to the cognitive operator modelling [http://erg4146.casaccia.enea.it/].

Conclusions

Results
An indication and the preliminary analysis of mental functins and tasks which could be supported or executed by IDSSs (Intelligent Computer Decision Support Systems). Dec.97, http://erg4146.casaccia.enea.it/Mika-saf.html
ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Problem Recognition
Human-Machine Interaction is a continuously growing domain of interest of researchers and practictioners. It is a consequence of ever more and more complex technologies and systems controlled and managed by humans.

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible Solutions

The problem is dedected from the perspectives of : - efficacy and quality of the production

Conclusions

- economy and sostenibility , and especially,


- safety and reliability of human component in human-machine aggregates.
ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Problem Recognition
The research in the field of Human-Machine Interaction (AltaVista: 50 017doc. ) is also distributed among such domains as: Man-Machine Interface - AltaVista: 1906 doc.

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions

Human-Computer Interface - AltaVista: 2868 doc. Lycos: 8201doc. Stanford: 524 MIT: 897 Human-Computer Communication -AV. 734

Human-Computer Cooperation
Cognitive Technology Cognitive Engineering

- AV. 39
- AV. 985 - AV. 3015

ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Problem Recognition
Classical engineering paradign:

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions

To addopt humans to machine failured in the case of high-risk systems and complex tasks. classical example of the consequences of a badly designed user interface [Excerpt from the official report to the Three Mile Island nuclear accident] New systemic perspective: a joint human machine system is performing the task [E.Hollnagel at al, 94],
http://www.erlbaum.com/260.htm

...is a

Human ignorance is a source of defeates and... human power

ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Problem Recognition
Poorly designed user interface causes economical loss: - rejection , - rare using. Badly designed user interface causes catastrofic human errors trough: -> confusion, misleading presentation of information, -> misinterpretation, -> cause of dangerous actions. More difficult is to specify what should be implemented than how to do it. We need appropriate goal-oriented models Goal: make communication smoothest possible to interfere least possible with thought process. [W.Joerg, Alberta Univ.95]
ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Problem Recognition

"The goal is to create software that works --really works --- in being appropriate and effective for people who live in the world that the software creates.
[Terry Winograd, HCI,96, http://pcd.stanford.edu/] and yet:
http://hci.stanford.edu/~winograd/bds/introduction.html

Problem Recognition State of the Art Problem Identification Possible Solutions Conclusions

Human-Machine Interaction should be modeled from the human and systemic perspective but not invented by software specialists.
[KMC, E.Swanstrom,1997]
ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Problem Identification approches


Sistemic Approach Cognitivistic Approach

Human - Machine Interactions



Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions

Software + Hardware Systems

Conclusions

Software Technologies & Engineering Platform


ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Systemic Perspective
on Reliability and Safety of
Human-Machine Interactions (HMI)
HMI can be seen as a process.

Reliability and Safety can be seen as a two complex properties of HMI and characterized by integrated generalized indicators:
Reliability Indicator - R

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions

Safety Indicator

- Sf

The carrier of the HMI process is the coupled system: Human-Machine.

ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project
Systemic Perspective Cognitivistic Perspective

Problem Identification
Modeling

Technological Perspective
Systemic Perspective

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible Solutions Conclusions

Cognitivistic Perspective

Design

Systemic Perspective Cognitivistic Perspective Technological Perspective

Soft-Tools develop.

ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project
Top-down identification
H

Systemic Perspective
Systemic Perspective Cognitivistic Perspective Technological Perspective
HO

and decomposition rules


ENV

CSS

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions Elementary heterogenious unit in the modern systemic approach [Gad.99]
H - Human, HO - Human Organization CSS - Computer Support Systems (Web) AD - Domain of Activity
AD

ENV - Environment
ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction Systemic Perspective


Everything said is said by an observer'.
(Maturana & Varela, 1980)

MICA Project

Given: Objectives, Functions and their indicators

Identification of Systems involved


Identification of Processes, Activities and their attributes

[Heuristic Appication of SPG, Gadomski,since 86;99]

Search expressions (models) of the type: indicators (attributes) Search attributes which min or max of indicators

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions Modification/design of Processes and Systems according to selected attributes Software engineer
ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Systemic Perspective
Key Factor:

RISK Risk Analysis Risk Sources Human Errors

Application Domains:

# HOME WORKS # PUBLIC SERVICIES

# ADMINISTRATION
# CULTURE # INDUSTRY # HEALTH

High Risk Domains

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible Solutions Conclusions

# MILITARY
# INSTRUCTION & SCIENCE

ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Systemic Perspective
Causes of Human Errors
Physical environment

Organization

Machine
(controlled system/proc esses)

Control and Measurement System

MIND

Computer Console

Human
operator

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions

Hardware & Software


Psycho-social environment

ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Bases of the Cognitivistic Perspective


"the study of intelligence and intelligent systems, with particular reference to intelligent behaviour as computation" (Simon, H. A. & C. A. Kaplan, "Foundations of cognitive science", in Posner, M.I.T. 1989
John Locke's (1690). Essay Concerning Human Understanding and the nature of human consciousness -First model..
Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions

Cognitive science is a multidisciplinary approach to the study of the human mind. Kalish, http://iris.cogsci.uwa.edu.au/cogsci.html P.N.Johnson-Lard-Mental Models,83. M.Olivetti-Belardinelli Mental Architectures,98, A.Slomans - Emotional Agents.

Professor Norman, the first chair of the UCSD Department of Cognitive Science, originated the Cognitive Engineering course. Distributed Cognition and Human Computer Interaction Laboratory. Univ. of California.,May 99.
ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Cognitive Engineering Perspective


the principles of cognitive engineering refers to: user-centered design ( its practices have wide applicability) and human-computer interaction in particular. It is base on cognitive models. Human-computer interaction (HCI) is the intersection between the social and cognitive sciences, on the one hand, and computer science and technology, on the other. HCI researchers analyze and design interaction technologies (e.g., displays and pointing devices, gestures and sketching). They study and improve the processes of technology development (e.g., usability evaluation, software toolkits, cognitive ethnography). Over the past two decades, HCI has progressively integrated scientific concerns with the engineering goal of improving the usability of computers. established a body of technical knowledge and methodology, and contributed broadly to the development of new computer technologies and applications.

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions

http://hci.ucsd.edu/132/nsyllabus.html
See also: MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science.

ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Cognitive Technology Perspective


Douglas Hofstadter is College Professor of cognitive science and computer science, director of the Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition, Ph.D. in physics, University of Oregon, 1975; Pulitzer Prize. The First International Conference on Cognitive Technology (Hong Kong, 1995) stressed the need for a radically new way of thinking about the impact computer technology has on humans, especially on the human mind. Our main aim at that time was a consideration of these effects with respect to rendering the interface between people and computers more humane.

Cognitive technologies in Europe:



Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions

- Rasmunssen, Andeson - Riso National Lab. - Hollnagel - Halden Project (from about 18 years)
-Gadomski (since 86), Nanni (87), Balducelli (93), DiCostanzo - ENEA .
ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

General Cognitivistic Perspective


Systemic + Psychology + Physics Mindware applied to the identification of mental processes of humans and living systems

Development of the Universal Theory of Cognition

Applied to living systems

Applied to autonomous H/Software systems

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions

Applied to Human-Machine Interaction Software Engineering Platform


ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction
The web is constructed for the communication between humans not computers

MICA Project

Cognitivistic Perspective
Risk Human Errors Human Models

Levels of a Human Functional Model:


Sensorial & Manipulation Perception

Reasoning
Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions

Decision-Making Communication

Cognitive Modeling

ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Possible Solutions
Existing Strategies for improving of HMI - Command-driven - improving what is requested - Event-driven - post-accident improvement - Means-driven - improv. based on available know-how - Goal-driven (Model-driven) - research based eng. improv.

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Possible Solutions Searching


Assumptions: 1. Every human interaction with complex machine is through computer then a Human-Computer Cooperation is needed. 2. Every human interaction with complex machine is decomposable on decision-making mental events. Mental processes

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions

?. . .
Machine + Computer processes
ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Possible Solutions
Mental processes

?. . .
Machine + Computer processes Computer substitutes or supports goal-dependent tasks of human user/operator.

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Critical points (recognizable events) which need to be identified by the cognitive modeling.

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Possible Solutions
Solution: In order to increase human reliability and safety in high-risk complex human-machine systems, we need to shift mental functions from human to computer, to construct computer
Is it my

ever more intelligent.

idea

We need intelligent agents.


ESPECIALLY FOR NOT ROUTINE, MULTI-DATA TASKS UNDER TIME CONSTRAINS.

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Possible Solutions: an Abstract Intelligent Agent, AIA Two roles of AIA: 1. user model -- cognitive intelligent agent 2. kernel of a computer intelligent assisstant. Intelligent - an agent with capability to the modification of own preferences, capability of learning and meta-reasoning.[TOGA,Gadomski].

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

Emotional agent - Modeling of emotions, emotional behaviour [Web]

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Possible Solutions: Project

1. Recognized utility of the TOGA meta-theory


[Gadomski,90,99] and SPG conceptualization [Gadomski,86,99] to the goal-oriented knowledge ordering in meta-system engineering applied to the analysis of HMI attributes.

Results

2. Recognized plausibility of the identification of human


mental states by the Protocol Analysis [K.A.Ericsson, H.A.Simon] applied to the IPK cognitive architecture [A.M.Gadomski,98,99].

3. Formal conceptual separation of knowledge,



Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

preferences and information acquisition in HumanMachine Interactions [Gadomski at al.,99]; has been applied to the IDA-MICA Project.

Human-Machine Interaction

MICA Project

Conclusions
The work has been supported by the Scientific Cooperaton (ortogonal no profits activity) with The Interuniversity Center for the Research on Cognitive Processing in Natural and Artificial Systems ( ECONA). Gadomski, Pestilli :INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: TOGA COGNITIVE
AGENT, in frame of The ECONAs Meeting on Research Activities on Cognitive Modeling, May ,99 [Web]. A.M.Gadomski,S. Ceccacci:Seminar Contesto TOGA per la Progettazione di un Agente
Intelligente Astratto ed il suo Decision-Making , Perugia,99 [Web](Bora per Tesi di L.)

A.M.Gadomski: TOWARDS SYSTEM ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGIES, SET, transparent-sheet, ENEA, 99[Web].

The obtained resualts are also the base for the proposal of a research project for the FET * Open (5th Program EU) with Univ. of Brussel,Poland, Ansaldo, ECONA (under preparation).
*FET - Future and Emerging Technologies
ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it