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Lines, Lettering and Dimensioning

- Dr. Ranadip K. Das Assistant Prof. MEMME Dept., ISM

Syllabus

Drawing instruments and their uses. Lettering, Lines and dimensioning. Scales: Plain scale, Diagonal scale, Vernier scale. Curves used in Engg. Practice: Conic sections, Ellipse, Parabola, Hyperbola, Cycloid, Epicycloid, Hypocycloid, Involutes, and Spiral. Orthographic projections: First angle and third angle projections, conventions used, orthographic projection of simple solids; Conversion of three-dimensional views to orthographic views. Isometric projections: Isometric views, conversion of orthographic views to isometric views. Free hand sketching.

Types of Lines (SP : 46-1998)

Types of Lines

short-break lines. leader lines. extension line. cutting plane lines 0.Thickness Line group Mediu m Thin Thicknes Uses s (mm) 0.1 Centre lines. and long-break lines . section lines.Lines .2 Out lines. dimension lines. dotted line. construction lines.

Lines . . clean and uniform. all lines except construction lines should be dense.Thickness In the finished drawing. Construction lines should be drawn very thin and faint in the finished drawings.

Types of Lines .

Types of Lines .

Types of Lines .

Types of Lines .

Dimensioning – Terms & Notations .

The dimension lines are broken near the middle for inserting the dimensions. The dimensions should be placed near the middle and above.as of aircrafts.dimensions are so placed that they can be read from the bottom edge of the drawing sheet. This system is mainly used on large drawings . . but clear of the dimension lines. automobiles etc. where it is inconvenient to read dimensions from the right-hand side.Placing of Dimensions Two systems: (i) Aligned system – dimensions are placed perpendicular to the dimension line in such a way that it may be read from the bottom edge or the right-hand edge of the drawing sheet. (ii) Unidirectional system .

Aligned system Dimensioning .

Unidirectional System Dimensioning .

The decimal point in a dimension should be quite distinct and written in line with the. The height of the dimension figures should be from 3 – 5 mm. only the dimension figures are written.Unit of Dimensioning As far as possible all dimensions should be given in millimetres Abbreviation mm is omitted. A zero must always precede the decimal point when .5). But a foot note such as ‘all dimensions are in centimetres’ is inserted in a prominent place near the title block. bottom line of the figure (such as 2.

unless they a clearer and more easily read inside. An outline or a centre line should never be used as a dimension line. Aligned system of dimensioning is recommended. A centre line may be extended to serve as an extension line. Mutual crossing of dimension lines and dimensioning between hidden lines should be avoided. Dimension lines should not cross another line of the drawing. but none should be given more than once. A dimension should be placed on the view where its use is shown more clearly.General Rules for Dimensioning Dimensioning should be done so completely that further calculation or assumption of any dimension. or direct measurement from the drawing is not necessary. . Dimensions should be placed outside the views. Every dimension must be given.

One of the smaller dimensions (the least important) is generally omitted. An overall dimension is placed outside the smaller dimensions. Two ways of placing dimensions in a series: (a) Continuous or chain dimensioning: Dimensions are arranged in a straight line.Practical Hints on Dimensioning Dimension lines should be drawn at least 8 mm away from outlines and from each other. .

Cumulative error is avoided by this method.Practical Hints on Dimensioning (b) Progressive or parallel dimensioning: All dimensions are shown from a common base line. This method is preferable. .

Practical Hints on Dimensioning Smaller dimensions should be placed nearer the view and the larger further away so that extension lines do not cross dimension lines. . When a number of parallel dimension lines are to be shown near each other. Extension lines may cross each other or the outlines. Dimensions should be shown where the shape is easily identified. the dimensions should be staggered.

of the dimension line. Due to lack of space.Practical Hints on Dimensioning Arrowheads should ordinarily be drawn within the limits of the dimensioned feature. but preferably on the right-hand side. A dot may also be used to replace an arrowhead. the dimension figure may be written above the extended portion. But when the space is too narrow. . they may be placed outside.

Practical Hints on Dimensioning Dimensions of cylindrical parts should as far as possible be placed in the views in which they are seen as rectangles. Dimensions should be shown in one view only. The dimension indicating a diameter should always be preceded by the symbol . the same dimension must not be repeated in other view. Dimension of a cylinder should not be given as a radius. .

Practical Hints on Dimensioning Various methods of dimensioning different sizes of circles as shown in the following figure. .

As far as possible. such as diameter and depth of a drilled hole. .Practical Hints on Dimensioning Holes should be dimensioned in the view in which they appear as circles. They should be located by their centre lines. or size and depth of a threaded hole should be given in one view only. all dimensions for one particular operation.

a dimension should not be placed within 30° zone of the vertical centre line as shown by the shaded space. . the dimension may be shown by a diagonal diameter.Practical Hints on Dimensioning In case of a large-size bore or a pitch circle. But. in aligned system.

they should be located by angles with one of the two main centre lines. .Practical Hints on Dimensioning Holes on pitch circles when equally spaced should be dimensioned as shown in the previous figure. When holes are not equally or uniformly spaced on the pitch circle.

Dimension line for the radius should pass through the centre of the arc. The following figure shows different methods of showing the radii of arcs.Practical Hints on Dimensioning Arcs of circles should be dimensioned by their respective radii. . The dimension figure must be preceded by the letter R.

.Practical Hints on Dimensioning Angular dimensions may be given by anyone of the methods shown in the following figure.

.Practical Hints on Dimensioning A slope or taper is defined as unit alteration in a specified length. Slope on a flat piece is written parallel to the sloping line The taper on a shaft is indicated along the centre line and is accompanied by one or both the diameters.

Incorrect & Correct way of Dimensioning .

Incorrect & Correct way of Dimensioning .

Incorrect & Correct way of Dimensioning .

Two types of single stroke letters: Vertical and inclined Inclined letters lean to the right. the slope being 75° with the horizontal. The horizontal lines should be drawn from left to right and vertical or inclined lines from top to bottom. It means that the thickness of the line of the letter should be such as is obtained in one stroke of the pencil. .Lettering The Bureau of Indian Standards (IS : 9609-1990) recommends single-stroke lettering for use in Engg. Drawing. The size of a letter is described by its height. It should not be taken to mean that the letters should be made in one stroke without lifting the pencil.

Vertical Capital Letters & Figures .

Inclined Capital Letters & Figures .

Vertical & Inclined Lower-Case Letters & Figures .

5 0.Lettering Proportions Characteristics Height of capitals Height of lower-case letters Spacing between characters Min.1 8 . 4 1.5 5. spacing between words Thickness of lines Ratio h h(14/1 4) c h(10/1 4) Dimensions (mm) 2. 4 e h(6/14) 1. 2 0.0 3.0 5 d h(1/14) 0.3 5 b h(20/1 4) 3.0 2. 8 a h(2/14) 0. 4 14 2.7 7. spacing of base lines Min. 7 8.1 0.3 5 10 20 7 1.5 14 28 4.

Vertical Capital Letters with Correct Proportions .

The drawing number in the title block is written in numerals of 10 – 12 mm size. while notes. shade and spacing.Few Points about Lettering Lettering id generally done in capital letters. dimension figures etc. light guidelines may be drawn. and lettering may then be done between them. in 3 – 5 mm size. H or HB pencils are recommended for lettering. All letters should be uniform in shape. . size. The main titles are generally written in 6 – 8 mm size. slope. Thin. Different sizes of letters are used for different purposes. Lettering should be so done as can be read from the front with the main title horizontal. subtitles in 3 – 6 mm size.

.Engineering Drawing End of Lines. Ranadip K.Dr. MEMME Dept. Lettering and Dimensioning . Das Assistant Prof. ISM .

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