Attitude

A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall

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Attitude Characteristics
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Is lasting because it tends to endure over time. Is general because it applies to more than a momentary event. Has three components - beliefs, affect, and behavioural intentions.

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Attitudes―components
BELIEFS/ Cognition AFFECT (FEELING)

BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS

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A Simple Representation of the Tricomponent Attitude Model

Cognition

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall

4/25/12

The Tricomponent Model Components  Cognitive Affective Conative The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources 4/25/12 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall .

The Tricomponent Model Components Cognitive Affective Conative A consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 4/25/12 .

The Tricomponent Model Components Cognitive Affective Conative Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall The likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object 4/25/12 .

attitude object Cognition: beliefs a consumer has about an .ABC Model of Attitudes Attitude has three interrelated components:  Affect: the way a consumer feels about an attitude object. C:\Users\faheem\Videos\RealPlayer Downloads\ABC o 4/25/12 . Behavior: person’s intentions to do something with regard to an attitude object.

. negative.g. disgust) 4/25/12 . or neutral May or may not be accurate May contradict other beliefs held by the other person Intentions    An individual’s plan or expectations of what he or she will do May appear inconsistent with beliefs May not predict well what the individual will do in reality  Affect    May be positive or negative May take on specific dimension (e. pleasure.Attitude Components Beliefs  Behavioral Can be positive.

Be sure to isolate the cognitive. affective. and conative elements 4/25/12 .Discussion Question Explain your attitude toward your college/university based on the tricomponent attribute model.

or meaning 4/25/12 . structure.Functional Theory of Attitudes Katz: attitudes exist because they serve some function UTILITARIAN FUNCTION: Relates to rewards and punishments VALUE-EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION: Expresses consumer’s values or self-concept EGO-DEFENSIVE FUNCTION: Protect ourselves from external threats or internal feelings KNOWLEDGE FUNCTION: Need for order.

g. 4/25/12 . Ads that stress straightforward product benefits (e. that person will develop a positive attitude toward cheeseburgers. you should drink Diet Coke "just for the taste of it") appeal to the utilitarian function.UTILITARIAN FUNCTION Utilitarian function is related to the basic principles of reward and punishment. If a person likes the taste of a cheeseburger. We develop some attitudes toward products simply on the basis of whether these products provide pleasure or pain..

VALUE-EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION Attitudes that perform a value-expressive function express the consumer's central values or self-concept. "What sort of man reads Playboy?"). 4/25/12 .g. and opinions to express a particular social identity. A person forms a product attitude not because of objective product benefits.. where consumers cultivate a cluster of activities. but rather because of what using the product says about him or her as a person (e. interests. Value-expressive attitudes are highly relevant to life-style analyses.

4/25/12 . An early marketing study indicated that housewives in the 1950s resisted the use of instant coffee because it threatened their conception of themselves as capable coffeemakers.EGO-DEFENSIVE FUNCTION Attitudes that are formed to protect the person. Many deodorant campaigns stress the dire.g. Marlboro cigarettes) may be appealing to his insecurities about his masculinity. perform an ego-defensive function.. either from external threats or internal feelings of insecurity. embarrassing consequences of being caught with underarm odor in public. Products that promise to help a man project a "macho" image (e.

or meaning. "Bayer wants you to know about pain relievers") C:\Users\faheem\Videos\RealPlayer Downloads\Function 4/25/12 .. structure. This need is often present when a person is in an ambiguous situation or is confronted with a new product (e.g.KNOWLEDGE FUNCTION Some attitudes are formed as the result of a need for order.

Marketers can change the beliefs and attitudes of customers by launching special campaigns in this regard. Attitude and Behavior Customer possesses specific belief and attitude towards various products.Relationship between Belief. 4/25/12 . Since such beliefs and attitudes make up brand image and affect consumer buying behavior therefore marketers are interested in them.

Beliefs Subjective judgments about the Subjective judgments about the relationship between two or more things 4/25/12 .

This belief may be based on some real facts or it may merely be a notion or opinion that the person has. A person may believe that a certain cooking oil 'x' has the lowest fat content and is best for health. 4/25/12 .Consumer Belief A belief is a descriptive thought that a person has about something.

4/25/12 . The marketer must ensure that consumers have all relevant and correct information about the brand to facilitate formation of a positive brand image. and if the customer has the wrong beliefs he is likely to generate a negative image about the brand.Why Belief is Important The belief that the customer has about a brand is important because it determines his behavior towards buying and using it. The beliefs constitute the brand image.

Behavior v/s Beliefs B e h a v i o B u e r 4/25/12 .

Extended warranties are worth 4/25/12 the money. retire. it probably is.A Sampling of Consumer Beliefs  If a deal seems too good to be true. Appliances today are not as durable as they were 20 years ago. . People need less money to live on once they It’s not safe to use credit cards on the Internet. You can’t believe what most advertising says these days.

It is easier to market a product which fits in well with the existing patterns of attitudes rather than change the attitudes to fit a new product concept. experience and influence. attitudes develop over the time with each fresh knowledge input.Attitude Attitude is a person's enduring feeling. Starting from childhood. Attitudes get settled into specific patterns and are difficult to change. 4/25/12 . evaluation and tendency towards a particular idea or object.

Properties of attitudes: Properties of attitudes: --Valence: Whether the attitude is positive. negative or neutral – Extremity: The intensity of liking or disliking – Resistance: Degree to which the attitude is immune to change – Confidence: Belief that attitude is correct – Accessibility: How easily the attitude can be retrieved from memory 4/25/12 .

However. social psychologists have found that attitudes and actual behavior are not always perfectly aligned. plenty of people support a particular candidate or political party and yet fail to go out and vote.How Do Attitudes Influence Behavior? We tend to assume that people behave in accordance with their attitudes. 4/25/12 . After all.

When you stand to win or lose something due to the issue. When you expect a favorable outcome.Researchers have discovered that people are more likely to behave according to their attitudes under certain conditions: When your attitudes are the result of personal experience. When the attitudes are repeatedly expressed. When you are an expert in the subject. 4/25/12 .

In order to reduce this tension. You can end the relationship and seek out a partner who is more 4/25/12 . people may change their attitudes to reflect their other beliefs or actual behaviors. you have two options. In order to reduce the tension caused by the conflicting beliefs and behavior. Imagine the following situation: You've always placed a high value on financial security.Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance is a phenomenon in which a person experiences psychological distress due to conflicting thoughts or beliefs. but you start dating someone who is very financially unstable.

feelings.Relationships between consumer beliefs. attitudes and intentions 4/25/12 .

Multiattribute Model (Fishbein Model) Aj = ∑BijIi Where: i = attribute or product characteristic j= brand Such that: A = the consumer’s attitude score for brand j I = the importance weight given to attribute i by the consumer B = the consumer’s belief as to the extent to which a satisfactory level 4/25/12 C:\Users\faheem\Videos\RealPlayer Downloads\ of attribute i is offered by brand .

Marketing Strategies of Attitude Change 1. Changing the consumer’s basic motivational function event 2. Changing Brand beliefs 4/25/12 . Altering components of the multi-attribute model 5. Associating the product with an admired group or 3. Resolving two conflicting attitudes 4.

Changing consumer's basic Motivational Function An effective Strategy for changing consumer attitudes toward a product or brand is to make particular needs important.1. Attitudes can be classified in terms of four functions  Utilitarian function Ego Defensive function  Value expressive function Knowledge function 4/25/12 .

Utilitarian function One way of changing attitudes in favor of a product is by showing people that it can serve a utilitarian purpose that they may not have considered. C:\Users\faheem\Videos\RealPlayer Downloads\DETTOL C:\Users\faheem\Videos\RealPlayer Downloads\Dawn Ma YouTube.webm 4/25/12 .

Ads for cosmetics and personal care products.they want to replace their uncertainty with a sense of security and personal confidence. C:\Users\faheem\Videos\RealPlayer Downloads\Ponds Ag C:\Users\faheem\Videos\RealPlayer 4/25/12 Downloads\Set Wet .Ego Defensive Function Most people want to protect their self images from inner feelings of doubt. by acknowledging this need increase both their relevance to the consumer and the likelihood of a favorable attitude change by offering reassurance to the consumer’s self concept.

If a segment of consumers has a positive attitude towards owning the latest personal communication devices. lifestyle or outlook and can reflect these characteristics in their advertising. Thus by knowing target consumers attitudes. lifestyles and outlook. then their attitudes toward new electronic devices are likely to reflect their orientation.Value Expressive function Attitudes are an expression or reflection of the consumer’s general values. marketers can better anticipate their values. C:\Users\faheem\Videos\RealPlayer Downloads\The Noki 4/25/12 .

The knowledge function Indeed many product and brand positioning are attempts to the need to know and to improve the consumer’s attitudes toward the brand by emphasizing it’s advantages over competitive brands. C:\Users\faheem\Videos\RealPlayer Downloads\Colgate N 4/25/12 .

events or causes.2. at least in part.YouTube. It is possible to alter attitudes toward products. social events or causes. to certain groups. C:\Users\faheem\Videos\RealPlayer Downloads\ Zong's Manchester United Ad .flv C:\Users\faheem\Videos\RealPlayer Downloads\Advertisi 4/25/12 . event or cause Attitudes are related. services and brands by pointing out their relationships to particular groups. Associating he product with a special group.

3.e. they may be induced to change their evaluation of the brand ( i. if consumers can be made to see that their negative attitude towards a product. moving from negative to positive) C:\Users\faheem\Videos\RealPlayer Downloads\Eagle Fir 4/25/12 . specific brand or its attributes is really not in conflict with another attitude. Specifically..Resolving two conflicting attitudes Attitude change strategies can sometimes resolve actual or potential conflict between two attitudes.

Changing the over all brand rating 4/25/12 .Altering components of the multi-attribute model A. Changing an attribute C. Changing brand beliefs B. Changing the relative evaluation of attributes A.4.

marketers usually may have an opportunity to persuade consumers to “cross over”. When it comes to cola. to . or when it comes to teas. there is division between regular teas and green teas. the market is divided into regular colas and diet colas. Changing the relative evaluation of attributes The overall market for many product categories is often set out so that different consumer segments are offered different brands with different features or benefits.A. that is to persuade consumers who prefer one version of 4/25/12 the product. In general when a product category is naturally is divided according to distinct product features or benefits appeal to a particular segment of consumers.

B. Changing brand beliefs A second cognitive. C:\Users\faheem\Videos\RealPlayer Downloads\Lifebuoy 4/25/12 .oriented strategy for changing attitudes concentrates on changing beliefs or perceptions about the brand itself.

C:\Users\faheem\Videos\RealPlayer Downloads\Sahir Lodhi in new Ariel Commercial 2011 .C.flv 4/25/12 .YouTube. Adding an Attribute This can be accomplished either by adding an attribute that previously has been ignored or one that represents an improved or technological innovation.

D.flv 4/25/12 . Changing the overall Brand Rating Another cognitive-oriented strategy consists of attempting to alter consumers’ overall assessment of brand directly.wmv .YouTube. without attempting to improve or change the evaluation of any single brand attribute C:\Users\faheem\Videos\RealPlayer Downloads\ Harpic 5X Pakistan..

Changing beliefs about competitors brands Another approach to attitude change strategy involves changing consumer beliefs about the attributes of competitive brands or product categories. C:\Users\faheem\Videos\RealPlayer Downloads\BONUS T 4/25/12 .5.

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