The EMG Signal

Artifact & Interference Sampling Rate Signal References Signal Processing.1

EMG Noise
A

form of artifact a “clean” signal

– Interference with signal recording
 Obscures

– Electromagnetic sources from the environment may overlay or cancel the signal being recorded from a muscle
» Especially problematic when the interfering frequency is the same as being recorded from muscle

Example: 60 Hz from power lines vs. 20 - 125 Hz slow twitch motor units

Sources of Noise (Interference)
 Driver

amplifier

 Poor

quality

– High CMRR > 100,000
 Broken  Ground

fault

– Amps not “tied together” – Ground prong on cable
» Broken » Absent

 Loose

cable connection  Loose controls

Sources of Noise (Interference)  Driver amplifier  Electrodes  Pre-amp faulty  Broken/cracked  Poor skin prep – Increases resistance – Attenuates signal  Poor electrode-to-skin contact – Electrode “tipped’ – No/too little conducting gel/paste .

Sources of Noise (Interference)  Driver amplifier  Electrodes  Small electrodes may cause poor contact  Different electrode disk impedance  Fixation failure over time – Tape loosens 20 to » Movement » Perspiration .

Sources of Noise (Interference)  Driver amplifier  Electrodes  Cable fatigue – Along length – At connector – Stripped insulation  Poor reference (ground) contact .

or poorly-shielded  “Swing frequency” will probably be under 10 Hz – Slow twitch mu’s: (20) 70 .120 Hz .Sources of Noise (Interference)  Driver amplifier  Electrodes  Cable movement artifact  Swinging cables – Especially if un.

MN 56701-0677 1-800-344-4539 www.com .digikey.Sources of Noise (Interference)  Driver amplifier  Electrodes  Cable movement artifact  Shorter cable minimizes swing  Use shielded cable1  Apply shield cables tie to ground 1Digi-Key Corp 701 Brooks Ave South Thief River Falls.

Sources of Noise (Interference)  Driver amplifier  Electrodes  Cable movement artifact  Electro-static/magnetic radiation  Light bulbs – Especially florescent  Motors – AC – Fans – Experiment component  Power lines .60 Hz  Phone lines  Ethernet cables  Cable dishes .

Sources of Noise (Interference)  Driver amplifier  Electrodes  Cable movement artifact  Electro-static/magnetic radiation  Radio waves  AM  FM .

Cross-Talk  Electrodes over an adjacent muscle pick-up a signal via skin conduction M1 M2 .

Cross-Talk  Visually inspect a tracing (monitor or printout) of a signal – If they have the same shape there is probably cross-talk Muscle 1 Muscle 2 .

Cross-Talk Fixes  Check skin prep  Check skin resistance  Reposition electrodes  Check reference (ground) electrode – Move between electrode sets  Use a narrower OC distance between electrodes. if available .

Sampling Rate  Number of data points (cycles) collected per unit of time .usually seconds – Example: 1000 cps = 1000 Hertz (Hz)  An adequate sampling rate ensures that what’s being recorded is truly representative of the signal .

Sampling Rate Lost Data Points Sampling rate Baseline Signal Adequately Sampled Signal Under-sampled .

Sampling  Under-sampling  Lost data points  Signal not truly representative – Can’t be trusted .Consequences .

Consequences .Sampling  Under-sampling  At  Signal or over-sampling rate adequately sampled  With over-sampling more data points are recorded than necessary – Could tax storage capacity .

250 Hz  Double the top rate – Sampling rate: 250 Hz x 2 = 500 Hz ~ 1000Hz .Selecting the Sampling Rate The “Two Times Rule”  Analyze the signal (or movement) and determine the highest possible operating frequency – Example: motor unit frequency range = (10) 70 .

Sampling at 1000 Hz  For data plotted on a graph sampled at 1000 Hz. each tic on the X-axis is 1msec 1000 msec 1 second .

drop a ball – Electrogoniometer – Torque signal . etc.) from which to start counting – Voltage spike – Concurrent video » Ariel synch method .Signal Reference (Events)  Event marker “stamps” the point-in-time (point-in-the range.

Voltage Spike from Event Marker Raw Rectified Voltage Spike Event .

Correlate EMG Signal with Torque Channel Torque Rectified EMG .

Phase transition – Onset .Signal Processing.1  Timing .Offset  Duration Onset Duration Offset .

Phase Transition  Visual assessment of phasic activity 1st 2nd 3rd .

Question: At what (data) point do I start counting? ? .

Signal Differentiation  Manual visual identification using a cursor .Baseline Noise vs.

Signal Differentiation 2 SD Method – Select a filtered segment of the pre-signal baseline to analyze » Example: 500 points » “Zoom-in” on baseline – Calculate descriptive statistics for the segment using full-wave rectification » Mean & SD – Double the SD and add to mean value = point where the true signal rises from the baseline .Baseline Noise vs.

Baseline Noise vs. Signal Differentiation Baseline Raw Signal Baseline Rectified Signal 500 pts .

1813-1820 . Winter. & Stephenitch. Journal of Human Muscle Performance..L.M. 71.A.L. Soderberg. D. Electromyographic activity of selected leg musculature in subjects with normal and chronically sprained ankles performing on a BAPS board. (1984). B. Electromyography in biomechanics. Physical Therapy.L. T. processing and normalization: procedures and consideration. 514-522.C. 1. G. (1991). Cook.M. Physical Therapy. & Cook.Reference Sources Soderberg. Rider. 5-15. (1991). G... 64.. S. Electromyogram recording. T.

15-26. A. Journal of Applied Biomechnics.J. J. The use of surface electromyography in biomechanics. R.J.E. (1997). 4.Reference Sources DeLuca.. & Archer. Crosstalk in surface electromyography: theoretical and practical estimates. 135-163. S. C. Fugerlan.M. (1996). 946-967.. Physical Therapy 76. Powers. Timing and intensity of vastus medialis muscle activity during functional activites in subjects with and without patellofemoral pain.A. (1994). & Perry. Landel. 13. Winter. D. .. C. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology.

M. 151-157.M. Grabiner. T. Karst. Journal of Biomechnics. 101.J. & Bui. P. M. & Willett.511-519. 75. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology.Reference Sources Koh. G. (1996). 26(supplement 1). . (1995). B. Onset timing of electromyographic activity in vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis muscles in subjects with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome.H. (1993). G. Evaluation and methods to minimize cross talk in surface electromyography.W.D.. A comparison of computerbased methods for the determination of onset of muscle contractions using electromyography. Physical Therapy.. 813-823 Hodges..

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