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Drought

4/26/12

Drought

A lack or shortage of water for an unusually long period of time Involves 50% less than usual rainfall over 3 months Drought ranges from a “drought spell” to successive years of


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Where & Why?
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Drought happens most in arid or semi-arid areas where rainfall is very unpredictable and scarce

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Failure of rains Extension of dry season

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i.e. Ethiopia, 4/26/12 and Chad Sudan

Where & Why?

The late arrival or failure of the heavy monsoon rainfall can bring severe drought condition, especially in monsoon countries

i.e. China, India, Bangladesh and Indonesia (Asia)
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Persistent blocking anticyclones can lead to the development of drought conditions in areas such as western Europe.

i.e. South East England drought in 2006
 El Niño 4/26/12

Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

July 2011 – East Africa’s Drought
Causes

Weather conditions over the Pacific  Unusually strong La Niña of rains for 2 consecutive seasons drought in 60 Years affected: Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Djibouti

Failure Worst Most
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July 2011 –East Africa’s Drought IMPACTS
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CROP FAILURE Lack of water for irrigation Unfertile soil

FOOD PRICES RISE:  Price of grain in Kenya 30-80% higher than average

FAMINE i.e. UN declared a famine in 6 areas of Somalia 750’000 people could dye in the following months i.e. 1/3 of all children in Juba region of Somalia are acutely malnourished 4/26/12Lower crop yields (less profits & less food à

July 2011 –East Africa’s Drought IMPACTS

More than 10 million people affected by severe drought in the horn of Africa Migration: Since the beginning of 2011, 15’ooo Somalis each month have fled to Kenya and Ethiopia looking for food and water More than 1’000 people arrive at Dabaab refugee camp in Kenya. Now there is more than 420’000 people.  now becoming overcrowded and insanitary

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July 2011 –East Africa’s Drought IMPACTS

Infant mortality increases: IM has triplicated as children below 5 are very vulnerable to malnourishment and the diseases that often accompany it i.e. diarrhea and pneumonia To some mothers, the weak, malnourished child has become a burden and they are prepared to let it die - a sacrifice in order to save their other children.

Conflicts worsen the problem (Somalia’s constant civil 4/26/12 war)  Militants had lifted a ban on aid

Tackling the Problem

violent conflict in the region has deterred international investment in long-term development programmes, which could have reduced the effects of the drought. Development aid would focus on reducing deforestation, topsoil erosion and overgrazing and improving water conservation. New roads and infrastructure for markets would help farmers increase their profits.

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