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Ritu MT2310216

Photonics & Microphotonics

Photonics - Deals with generating and controlling photons Micro photonics Deals with directing the light on microscopic scale

Basic foundations of Microphotonics

Total internal reflection photonic switch Photonic transistor Transistor laser Holographic storage

Total internal reflection

Critical angle angle of incidence at which refracted light travels along the boundary of material If i>c, then light totally internally reflected If i<c, then light partially reflected and partially refracted

Photonic switch
Currently, replacing electronic switching technology because -Its a ultra fast switching technology -To avoid the overheads of optical electrical optical conversion -Supports all transmission speeds

Photonic Transistor

Invented by John N. Hait in 1989 Operating speed 833,333.3 GHz Accomplished with the help of red and blue lasers. Laser beams are focused on a film composed of metal and plastic layers with a layer of silver oxide.


Has a quantum well in the base. Can produce both electric and optical signals e-h recombination take place in a large amount in quantum well which emits light. This light get reflected by the mirrors at the walls of the quantum well



It is used to collect and store data This uses a data beam and a reference beam Holographic memory devices can store trillions of bytes Holographic storage has the potential to replace the magnetic storage

Holographic Storage
Recording data Reading data

Microphotonic Devices

Photonic crystals - composed of periodic dielectric

nanostructures (contain regularly repeating internal regions of high and low dielectric constant) Photons propagate through this structure or not depending on their wavelength Used for reflective coatings to enhancing the efficiency of LEDs and highly reflective mirrors in certain laser cavities (VCSEL)

Microphotonic Devices

Microdisk - A type of microphotonics device used

to trap photons in small volumes for long periods of time.

This microdisk is composed of silica glass on the top sitting on top of an anisotropically etched silicon pedestal

Microphotonic Devices
Microtoroids - stores optical energy at the exterior boundary of the toroid and achieve Q factors in excess of 100 million. -function as resonator for photonic devices

Microphotonic Devices
Micromirror devices- based on microscopically small mirrors - are Microelectromechanical systems - micromirrors used in video projectors, optics and micromirror devices for light deflection and control

Literature review
Microphtonics as successor to electronics


Tribology Profilometry Microtomography Medical Photonic textiles Light field camera Femtosecond lasers


This can increase the speed of processing This can reduce the size and cost of photonic circuits It can lead to new revolutions in all the technical fields