Principles of Sociology

Lecture 5 Chapter 6

Groups and Organizations  Relationship between information and social organization……….  Aggregate: collection of people who happen to be in the same place and situation but share little in common Eg. Passengers at a bus stop .

ethnicity but might not be connected at all. they can both transform into each other.  Category: People who share a similar characteristic such as education. race. distinction between an aggregate and a category is a weak one.  The .Groups and Org.

 Outgroup: no belonging and feelings of competition and hostility. flexibility in inclusion. size and nature W. Graham Sumner (1959)  Ingroup: a group to which an individual belongs and feels a sense of identity either with the motto or with the people.Types of Groups  Groups differ at the levels of solidarity. .

Group types  Ideas of ethnocentrism and Merton’ s ideas of personal beliefs. a group which greatly influences a persons ideas and actions regardless of group participation Klu klux Klan .  Reference Groups.

Their purpose varies greatly (class discussion) Insurance against uncertainty Political behaviour etc etc .Group Types  Networks. a web of social relations that links one person to other people and through them other people…….

Group and Organizational dynamics  Functionalists believe that groups are essential for the fulfilment of Instrumental and Expressive needs Marxists view such groups as exploitative and not serving members equally Symbolic Interactionist look at the size of the group and how its interaction and group think varies.   .

Dynamics Post-modern thinkers say that societies and its ensuing groups are characterized by fragmentation and superficiality. Eg. Fast food employees .

groups have more personalized interactions and all members interact simultaneously  Small .Group Size  Group size is an important factor for sociologists since they look at how behaviour varies with the numbers.

a two member group which ceases to exist without participation of a single member  Triad.Group size  Geroge Simmel pointed out that small group serve the purpose of providing a sense of unity and an intense bond. a three member group .  Dyad.

Group size  Coalition. is an alliance formed to attain a specific goal or shared objective. The relationships within a group also depend on its Absolute and relative size . These can exists as separate entities in formal organizations.

Larger groups need a more formalized leadership to handle both the internal and external relationships of a group. .Group size  Absolute size is the actual members of a group  Relative size is the number of potential members.

Authoritarian: leaders make all decisions and assign tasks Democratic: decision making through consensus and dialogue Laissez. 3. group members encouraged to make their own decisions . Some basic leadership styles are.Faire: minimal decision making by the leaders.Leadership in Groups   1. 2. Instrumental and Expressive leadership.

Groups  Conformity: the process of maintaining or adapting behaviour in compliance with the norms of the group or society  Group think: the process by which a cohesive group arrives at a decision that many members believe to be unwise. .

Theories.192 and contribute to class discussion. .  Read from pg 186. Rationality and Bureaucratic control.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.