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Inflation after WMAP

Kin-Wang Ng ()
Academia Sinica, Taiwan

2nd International Workshop on Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry Hsinchu, Nov 5 6 , 2010

Collaborators: Yeo-Yie Charng, Hing-Tong Cho, Da-Shin Lee, Wolung Lee, I-Chin Wang, Chun-Hsien Wu

Outline
Cosmic background backgroud anisotropy and WMAP observation Primordial density perturbation
scale-invariant, running spectral index, Gaussianity

Large-scale CMB anomalies Implications to inflation

7-year WMAP 2010

PR(k)= (/)2

Running spectral index

Inflation and Primordial Density Fluctuations

PR(k)= (/)2

|dn/dlnk| << |n-1|

Curvature potential Slow-roll inflation

2=/

WMAP3 Data on Non-Gaussianity

Radiation transfer function

Large-scale CMB anomalies

WMAP1

WMAP3

Low quadrupole

South-North Power Asymmetry


Eriksen et al 04

Eriksen et al 04 Park 04

northern hemisphere southern hemisphere full sky

North pole (80o,57o)

WMAP3 CMB sky map

Land & Magueijo 05

Axis of Evil

l=2, quadrupole

l=3, octopole

A Challenge to Standard Slow-roll inflation!?

Slow-roll kinematics Slow-roll conditions violated after horizon crossing (Leach et al) General slow-roll condition (Steward) |n-1|~|dn/dlnk| Multi-field (Vernizzi, Tent,

Quantum fluctuations

Chaotic inflation classical fluctuations driven by a white noise (Starobinsky) or by a colored noise

(Liguori, Matarrese et al.)

Rigopoulos, Yokoyama et al)


etc

coming from high-k inflaton Driven by a colored noise from interacting quantum environment (Wu et al)
Trapped inflation (Green et al)

Our Inflaton-Scalar Interacting Model

(Wu et al 07)

Single-field inflation= 0

Trace out sigma field to obtain :

Feynman & Vernon 1963 Influence Functional Method

semi-classical

Dissipation

Noise

imaginary part

real part

Colored, dependent on history

Start of inflation

Dominant passive fluctuations and low CMB quadrupole

assuming no active de Sitter quantum fluctuations

Running spectral index and Non-gaussianity


We propose a new dynamical source for density perturbation: Colored Quantum Noise - give a low CMB quadrupole Can be applied to trapped inflation (Green et al. 09) Working on running spectral index and nonGaussianity, both are natural with colored noise
Relative large three-point functions

ns Dissipation?

Following is an effort to go from homogenous to directional effects

A black hole in inflation Cho, Ng, Wang 09


Schwarzschild-de Sitter
M - black hole mass H - Hubble parameter

Static ------> Planar

Inflaton fluctuations

Expansion parameter

where the source term

Solutions
Zero order

First order

Power spectrum

de Sitter quantum fluctuations End of inflation 0

Possible effects to CMB anisotropy

early universe
e.g. black holes formed via thermal fluctuations
Scardigli et al.

present universe

Carroll, Tseng, & Wise 08 preferred point, line, or plane

Speculations
Is it possible not to fine tune inflation duration to 60 efolds? Then there must be something taking place during slow-roll inflation Formation rate must not be far below the expansion rate of inflation e.g. Collapse of density peaks of quantum fluctuations during inflation or

String Landscape
10500 de Sitter vacua Metastable, bubble nucleation via tunneling Barriers of string scale, slow tunneling rate The spacetime is a hierachy of de Sitter vacuum bubbles Most part in eternal inflation Some regions tunnel down to flat potential for slow-roll infaltion We sit in a vacuum with a small cosmological constant today

Efficient and rapid tunneling


Tye, Shiu,

slow-roll inflation in a de Sitter vauum 2

Will these bubbles 1 collapse into black holes?

Motion of the bubble wall


surface tension

bubble radius

Work is in progress towards an explanation of large-scale CMB anomalies with black holes, domain filaments, and bubble walls

Conclusion
Hints from WMAP data on beyond standard slow-roll inflation !? A fine tuning physics just at 60 e-foldings Maybe there is a window to see the first few efoldings of inflation !? Many models give a suppressed CMB low multipoles and/or directional effects Perhaps we are all fooled by probability it is indeed a Gaussian quantum process Nongaussianity is an important check