The Internet

What is the Internet?
The internet is the world’s network. It is a voluntary, and almost unregulated, collection of hardware and software owned by private individuals and organizations.
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Birth of the Net
Began in 1969 as a experimental project by DoD (U.S. Department of Defence) At this time it was called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency) 1980 - ARPANET was renamed Internet 1989 - World Wide Web, proposed by Tim Berners Lee, physics laboratory called CERN in Europe.
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What does Internet offer?
Electronic mail Information retrieval
The World Wide Web The Gopher System File Transfer Protocol Telnet
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What does Internet offer?
Mailing Lists Newsgroups Chat Online Shopping
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World Wide Web

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What is WWW?
World Wide Web (WWW), or web, is a retrieval based on technology that organizes information into pages. The pages are called Web pages, or “documents.” World Wide Web is the collection of data held on the Internet and the tools to allow analysis of that data.
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World Wide Web
1. Web Browsers A look at Microsoft Internet Explorer 2. How the Web Works What’s really happening when you hop from site to site 3. Anatomy of a Web Page 4. Basic Terminologies
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World Wide Web
5. Domain Names What .com really means 6. Understanding Web Addresses Every web page has a unique address 7. Bookmarks and Favorites Create a list of your favorite websites 8. Searching the Web Tools can unearth the vast resources of the 9 Internet&Services By. Shafiq A. Chachar Web

What is a Web Browser?
A web browser is the software program you use to access the World Wide Web, the graphical portion of the Internet. Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Communicator are the two most popular one.
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Internet Explorer - Toolbar
The row of buttons at the top of your web browser, known is the toolbar.

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Back Button

The Back button returns you to the previous page you’ve visited
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Forward Button

The Forward button returns you to the page you just came from
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Stop Button

The Stop button stops the browser from loading the current page
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Refresh Button

The Refresh load the web page again
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Home Button

The Home takes you to whichever home page you’ve chosen. A home page is the first entry level screen of any Website, where visitors are normally welcomed. The page will show the contents of the site and and give instructions for its use.
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Choose Your Own Home Page
View --> Options --> General Tab

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Search Button

The Search connects to pages on the Microsoft websites that list a number of Internet directories and search tools
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Favorites Button

Favorites allows you to create a series of shortcuts to commonly visited pages.
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History Button

To revisit recently viewed Web pages
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The Location Bar

This is where you type in the address of a website you want to visit. After you enter it, press the Enter key. By clicking the small triangle to the right of the Location Bar, you will get a drop down list of the most recent websites you have visited.
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The Access Indicator
Internet Explorer has a small picture in the upper right hand corner of the browser. When this image is animated, it means that your browser software, know as client, is accessing data from a remote computer, called a server.
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The Status Bar
At the bottom of the web browser you’ll find a window known as a progress of web page transactions, such as the address of the site you are contacting, whether the host computer has been contacted and the size of the files to be downloaded
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How the Web Works (1)
Web consists of personal computer web browser internet service provider servers routers

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How the Web Works (2)
The Web is known as a client server system. Your computer is the client. The computer that store electronic files is the server.
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Basic Terminologies
Web Site: A collection of related Web pages belonging to an individual or organization. Web Server: A computer that stores and distributes Web pages upon request.

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Basic Terminologies
Hyperlink: Boldfaced and underlined text or a graphic icon with a World Wide Web pages that summons new information to the screen when the user selects it. Often also called hypermedia.

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Basic Terminologies
Browsing/Surfing: Moving selectively around the Internet using hypertext links. Hypertext: A system of writing and displaying text that enables the text to be linked in multiple ways and contain links to related documents.
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Basic Terminologies
Internet Service Provider: ISP is an organization that provides connection to an Internet in return for a fee. HTML - Hypertext Markup Language: HTML is the programming language that allows the creation of links between data items throughout the World Wide Web.
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Basic Terminologies
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol – Internet Protocol) is a set of standards for communication software using the Internet. A home page is the first entry level screen of any Web site, where visitors are normally welcomed. The page will show the contents of the site and give instructions for its use.
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Anatomy of a Web Page
A web page is an electronic document Written in HTML. Each web page has a unique address, called a URL. Web pages are linked together through a system of hyperlinks. Home Page is the starting point of a website.
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Domain Names(1)
.com - business (commercial) .edu - educational .org - non-profit .mil - military .net - network provider .gov - government
Over 7.2 million domain names, 85% are .com domains.

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Domain Names(2)
.au - Australia .ca - Canada .fr - France .de - Germany .uk - United Kingdom .pk - Pakistan
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Understanding Web Addresses
Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is the unique address which describes the location of an individual Web Page. URL is entered into the Location Bar

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Understanding Web Addresses
http://www.dial.pipex.com The page is using “http” or Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which means that the images and text conform to HTML. The site is ‘www’ or a World Wide Web site. The name of the domain/site is ‘dial pipex’ The organization is commercial.
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Understanding Web Addresses
Most of the URLs start with HTTP followed by colon and two slashes HTTP - Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
Download Web Pages

FTP - File Transfer Protocol
Download Text Files

FILE - to locate a file on your local drive (your hard drive)
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Understanding Web Addresses
Important things to know about URLs
A URL usually has no spaces A URL always uses forward slashes You can find the URL behind any link by passing your mouse cursor over the link. The pointer will turn into hand and the URL will appear in the browser’s status bar
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Searching the Web
Searching requires part skill, part luck and a little bit of art. Search Engines are software tools that allow user to find information throughout the Web by using keywords. Two categories -- directories & indexes
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Searching the Web
Directories
are good at identifying general information group websites under similar categories, such as tutorials, universities, museums etc.

For e.g., if you are searching for the Louvre museum website, try using the directory such as Yahoo!
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Searching the Web
Indexes
analyze millions of web pages & newsgroups postings, indexing all of the words. use software program called spiders or robots that scour the Internet.

For e.g., if you are looking for biographical information about Leonardo da Vinci try indexes such as AltaVista and Lycos. 40 Internet&Services By. Shafiq A. Chachar

Searching the Web
Results in… Searching … cable AND carDocum ents with both words cable OR car The greatest am out of m atches; docum ents with either words cable NOT carDocum ents about cable, but not about cable cars; a good way to lim it the search
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The Future
RealPlayer CU-SeeMe Internet2 ScreenFridge Electronic Commerce

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RealPlayer
Company- RealNetworks Audio and Video with RealPlayer software This technology is called streaming media Due to bandwidth the picture is small and jerky, but it does hint at future television.
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CU-SeeMe
Cornell University First free videoconferencing program for Macintosh and Windows. Let users send and receive video and sound over local area networks and the Internet It is still primitive due to bandwidth limitations.
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What is Internet2
February 1999 Can carry huge amount of data at speeds thousands of times faster than your modem. It links number of university across U.S. It will be available for commercial use in a few years. Interactive television, virtual 3-D conferencing, movies on demand etc.
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ScreenFridge
Company - Electrolux Know for vacuum cleaners 21st Century Internet icebox Manages your pantry Email a shopping list to your cyber supermarket and coordinate a convenient delivery time with your schedule
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Electronic Commerce

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Electronic Commerce
E-commerce is defined as sharing business information, maintaining business relationships, and conducting business transactions through the use of telecommunications networks.

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Electronic Commerce
It is estimated that the total value of goods and services traded between companies over the Internet in 1997 was $8 billion and will grow to $333 billion worldwide by the year 2002.

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Benefits of Electronic Commerce

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Increase customer support
Think of your website as a 24 hours-a-day, 7 days-a-week. Providing your customers with:
a searchable database of retailers who carry your products, maps and directions to your office, press releases,
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Increase customer support
electronic instruction manuals, brochures and catalogs, answers to frequently asked questions.

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Offer new kinds of services
Are you in the brokerage business? How about electronic trading? Do you sell books? Let people order online. Do your customers regularly call your office to have their questions answered? Let them send e-mail as well. You get the idea. The opportunities are only limited by your imagination and resourcefulness.
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Create new relationships with your customers
Think about creating a community around your product or service. If your company manufactures bicycle gear, initiate a chat room where your customers can discuss the sport; if your company provides financial services, consider an investors' forum.
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Off-load responsibilities to your customers
Remember when you had to wait in line at a bank to get cash. Thanks to ATMs, those days are over forever. Banks now make you do much of the work of imputing data; in return there's the convenience of 'round the clock banking. A website can help your business in much the same way. 55 Internet&Services By. Shafiq A. Chachar

Perform market research
Your website can be a valuable source of data about your customers. By examining the traffic reports generated from your site, you can find out when they access your site, where they come from and which features they access. You can actively solicit information from visitors by asking them to fill out survey forms.
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Reduce your business costs
Saving money can be just as important as making money, right? Your website can do that by streamlining costs for customer service, ordering, printing and postage, among other things. According to Forester Research, online orders are 4% more profitable than orders placed over the phone. 57 Internet&Services By. Shafiq A. Chachar

Reach new markets
The Internet spans the globe, allowing your company to offer its products and services internationally, an option once open only to large corporations.

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Create new business partnerships
A website is a wonderful way to create mutually beneficial relationships. For instance, a travel-related site might link to a travel agency and receive a commission should the referral generate new business. Likewise, a travel agency can link to your travel-related site so clients can avail themselves of your travel expertise. It's a win-win situation for both businesses. 59 Internet&Services By. Shafiq A. Chachar

Beat the competition
It may not be the best reason to build a site, but it's certainly a valid one. Most business compete for customers. Does your competitor have a website? Then you need one too. More than keeping up, it can be the difference between staying in the game or going out-of-business.
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Gopher
An information retrieval tool for the Internet that generates hierarchical, text-intensive menus; successive topic choices narrow a search to a particular resource. Gopher is organized similarly to the Web. Web pages often contain links to Gopher sites and vice versa.
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File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
A communication protocol that facilitates the transfer of files between a host computer and a user’s computer. FTP sites allow you to download files by selecting them from menus that list file and folder names. Selecting a file name often initiates an immediate file download to your computer. 62 Internet&Services By. Shafiq A. Chachar

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Archie – A software tool that enables Internet users to search through public servers to find the locations of downloadable files on particular subjects. Archie client software is included with many Web browsers.
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Telnet
A communication protocol that lets a workstation behave like a dumb terminal when interacting with remote servers. In a popular application, people often play games over networks with others, and Telnet hosts run the games for all players.
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Telnet
Many bulletin board systems are also set up on Telnet computers throughout the world. Telnet is another feature built into many Web browsers.

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