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Languages and dialects do not exist in a vacuum. Language contact occurs when two or more languages or varieties interact. It is only the degree of that contact on which languages and dialects differ. A very common result of such linguistic contact is lexical borrowing. Lexical Borrowing: the adoption of individual words or even very large sets of vocabulary items from another language or dialect.
Borrowing may vary in degree and kind from casual to heavy lexical borrowing, and from slight to more or less signiﬁcant incorporation of structural features as well. As already noted, situations involving primarily lexical borrowing, that is, borrowing of content morphemes like nouns, verbs, etc., are extremely common, and most, if not all, languages have been subject to this kind of inﬂuence at some time or another. Some languages have borrowed so much that they have become scarcely recognizable. Armenian borrowed so many words from Iranian languages, for example, that it was at first considered a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages. It was not recognized as an independent branch of the Indo-European languages for many decades.
The motivation for borrowing which most readily comes to mind is NEED. If the speakers of a given language take over new cultural items, new technical, religious concepts, or references to foreign locations, fauna, flora, there obviously is a need for vocabulary to express these concepts or references. The reason for the borrowing is out of PRESTIGE
other. Moreover. we may feel a NEED to imitate or borrow it. related social concepts affect the extent to which foreign words are nativized. . as well as what kinds of words are likely to be borrowed. Nevertheless. It is of course possible to argue that the difference between need and prestige is not really that great -if something is PRESTIGIOUS. the notion prestige plays a significant role in determining the extent of borrowing.
The varying effects of prestige on borrowing can be illustrated by a brief look at the relationships of English with the different languages it has come in contact with during the course of history.Anglo-Saxons & Celts inferior. to a few names for animals. must be the reason that very few words of Celtic origin were borrowed. They were limited. in tum. in effect. and topology . The LOW PRESTIGE of the Celts. The words that were borrowed were quite restricted in their denotations and connotations. 1. articles of clothing.
TheOld Norse of the so called Danes.g.Substrat E.Equal E. EQUALS with the indigenous English population 1-very large number of borrowings 2.These borrowings affected everyday vocabulary even basic vocabulary was borrowed.. Superstrat .g.This contact resulted in the largest number of borrowings ..French of the Norman conquerors 1.
Through vocabulary borrowing other linguistic elements may be acquired 1-Morphological items 2-Segments 3-Enviroments for established segments 4-Phonological rules 5-Grammatical Constructions .
. And since these patterns are not limited to just a few words. they must be accounted for by synchronic rules of derivation and morpheme combination. English has through borrowing acquired a considerable amount of complex morphology. . „potable‟.. ation/tion.etc. deviation and occurrence. They can therefore be analyzed as containing these basic words plus the suffixes –ible/able. as well as Latin has introduced into English words like „legible‟. As a result. Many of these words coexist along with other borrowed.Heavy borrowing from French.
the agential –er of words like singer is a loan from Lating „arius. the word كندرةis borrowed from Turkish. In Arabic. Note that one of the most commonly used derivational suffixes of English. كندرجي Now it is used as part of the Arabic morphology to indicate profession such as بستانجي >=بستانeven its use is extend to non-Arabic words used in Arabic such as „post‟ => بوستجي . It was borrowed along with „ ‟جيsuffix as .
the sound [v] in the pronunciation of words like video. DVD…etc . The introduction of a new segment is found in the pronunciation of Bach as [bax] and yecch [yex] which seems to be of Yiddish origin. as in „measure‟ and „Pleasure‟. [Z] is used in final environment. the segment [Z] is found only medially. In words like „rouge‟ and „prestige‟. In more established English words. In Arabic.
borrowing can result in the introduction of new phonological rules into the recipiant language.y => k>s/-[-back] + [vocalic] +[high] .e. as in the case of [k]/[s] and [g]/Z] alternations borrowed from Norman French through word pairs such as electric: electricity i. According to Hock.
be. or function words essential in syntax.rain. The most successful resistance to borrowing is offered by BASIC VOCABULARY. moon.. From a purely linguistic perspective. . such as eat.have. if. needs. etc. different spheres of vocabulary are borrowed more easily. the definite article the. others significantly less easily. such as the demonstrative pronouns this and that. or. and when. words referring to the most essential human activities.sleep. or conjunctions like and.do.
.g. Although verbs are borrowed more easily than basic vocabulary. And if the need for borrowing does arise. film يفلم بفلم فلمor they borrow a verb derived from these nouns Ar. they nevertheless are not as readily borrowed as nouns. many languages instead borrow a nominal form of the verb and employ a native all-purpose verb such as do or make as a means of turning that form into the equivalent of a verb e. Fill (v) Fa:lal ( – )يفلل ، فللCheck (v) شاياك .
Verb Verbal Adject. imitare ->imitiitum -> do imitate speculare ->speculiitum ->do speculate . The reason for this particular resistance probably lies in the fact that it is easier to ask questions like "What do you call this (thing)?" than something like "What is the verb you use to designate that somebody is doing this/acting in this way?“ Latin Early Modern English borrowing .
For instance. them from the language of the so-called Danes. . new artifacts. their. The relative resistance of verbs and especially of basic vocabulary does not mean that they are totally impervious to borrowing. often referring to technology. The most easily borrowed words belong to more specialized forms of discourse. Under the right social circumstances (see § 5 below) both types of lexical items can be borrowed. English borrowed the basic-vocabulary pronouns they.
beside changes in pronunciation. The major difficulty with borrowing from a foreign language is that languages may diverge considerably in their phonology. we have to "configure" our articulatory organs -and the neurological processes that control them -for English. . In order to speak English. What is common to all of them is that they NATIVIZE the borrowing by integrating it more firmly into the linguistic structure of the borrowing language. There are many other adjustments. that tend to accompany borrowing.
in Arabic. 1. as well as EPSA. we have [be:b] .The most important nativization processes clearly involve PHONOLOGY. Thus. we think that the most natural thing to do is substitute the MOST SIMILAR NATIVE SOUND. even though /p/ is used in Arabic before voiceless consonants. we instead of pipe. /p/->/b/. Substitution When faced with a foreign sound that does not exist in our own language. Thus. We have to make the borrowed word pronounceable in our language. For example. it is not phonemic.
Here the phonetic difference between donor language and borrowing language is considerably greater. A slightly more complicated example is the English substitution of [k] for foreign [x]. In EPSA. as in the usual English pronunciation of Bach as [bak]. . since both sounds share the fact that they are velar and voiceless. Still. A substitution of voiced velar [g] would make much less sense. and substitutions such as [p] and [b] would be preposterous. and English simply has no sound that would closely match the foreign sound. the substitution of /k/ remains as it is except in doctor /daxto:r/ and tractor /daraxtar/. the substitution of [k] for [x] makes sense.
Check = [she:k] Powder = [bo:drah] Houseboy = [ho:zbo:y] Arbitrary substitution t remains t in most cases t changes to d in [daraxtar] t changes to T in battery . bolt = bolT .
At times it is not just one sound which is substituted. The nativization as corresponding oral vowel [c] plus n manages to "factor out" the vowel and nasal features of the French sound in terms of permissible English sounds. but rather a combination of sounds which together can be said to be most similar to the foreign sound. Fr. in the selection of [n] to encode French nasality. Thus. [solon]. . salon is borrowed as Engl. Nonstandard German uses the velar nasal [ing] for the same purposes. there is some element of arbitrariness. Here again. The French word contains [č](written on). a single nasal vowel that is absent in English. as in [zalon]. What motivates this development is the following.
it changes to [ f ]. Since /v/ is not in the sound system of Arabic. Vaseline [wa:zli:n] Villa = fila: . Driver = [dre:wil] . It is usually changed into the following based on the phonological environment V -> [w] / V:ـــــV / #--a word initially next to a Otherwise.
Nativization frequently takes place through SPELLING. .
/g/ is a phoneme in spoken Arabic of Saudi Arabia. The En. /g/ rarely appears as in: gear /gi:r/ but it is changed into /k/ as in garage : [kara:j] and /gh/ as in [ghra:m] due to it‟s familiarity in the writing system The influence of orthography explains the change of /g/ into /j/ as in [ja:lo:n] and [katalo:j] . In writing. /g/ stays as it is in all the borrowed forms except in writing.
) cognates provides a quasi-analogical pattern which suggests that foreign h corresponds to native g . an explanation is possible: The relationship between native Russian words and their Ukrainian (etc. But once we note that languages to the west such as Ukrainian. Among the "exotic" nativization processes can be observed is ETYMOLOGICAL nativization. None of the nativization processes so far discussed would account for this substitution.as in 'gospital' 'hospital'. For instance. have " changed Proto-Slavic g to h. which are closely related to Russian and in intensive contact with it. till recently literate speakers of Russian nativized western foreign [h] as [g].
gospod „God‟ Hospital x = Ru. Ru. gospital' 'hospital' . Ukrainian hospod„ Germ.
as in Trend [trent] (even though Ger. are made to conform. has [d] as a phoneme) . in the northern varieties of Standard German. Many languages nativize foreign borrowings to make them conform to native restrictions 1-on word 2-Syllable structure For instance.Phonological nativization may also be sensitive to phonological STRUCTURE. all final stops have become voiceless by final devoicing Foreign words that do not conform to this pattern of final voicelessness. through substitution of the nearest voiceless sounds. trend with final voiced [d]. such as Engl.
with just one initial consonant (if any). This is commonly achieved through vowel insertion. and with no syllable-final consonants. foreign borrowings in Japanese are consistently reshaped in order to conform to the syllable structure of Japanese which tolerates only syllables of the type CV. But it may be accomplished by other means. Similarly. . plus a vowel (or syllabic nasal). such as the reduction of the initial consonant group and the dropping of the final consonant.
Besuboru sweater ~ seta Restrictions on Consonant Clusters In EPSA. consonant clusters which consist of more than two consonants are not permitted just like Standard Arabic. Clusters of two are permitted ( yet some of them are separated to make the word look like SA) unlike SA.Engl. Screw = [sikru:b] . baseball -> Jap. Yet. Aspro = [asbiro] . 3 Cluster : 0-> I / C – CC .
Like screw = [sikru:b] Omission : some phonemes were omitted a-> 0 / #. Insertion : new phonems were added to some words 0-> C / #.antenna [ante:n] .
Possession Clipping : screw driver = sikru:b .In EPSA. all the borrowing are morphologically treated as if they were Arabic Number Gender Word Formation Fala:l = yifa:lil .
out .Narrowing Pass . penalty Extension Motor to mean the vehicle and the engine .
Number They are pluralized either by adding the plural inflection of Arabic or by changing the form to fit any of the Arabic paradigm. are formed by steminternal constant and vowel changes.barami:l . Some loanwords have accepted the sound-plural type as in the following examples: Sound-Plural Break > breaka:t Ghram> ghrama:t Truck> traka:t Broken-Plural Broken-plurals in Arabic. Arabic has two types of plural form. on the other hand. sound-plural and brokenplural. It is based on these models: مصروف مصاريف ، خد خدود ، خنجر خناجر barrel> barmi:l .
. Phonological nativization. however. is accomplished by the simple ADOPTION of a foreign sound or by adoption of a sound in a context where it does not occur natively. can be accomplished by a great variety of developments. none of these (or yet other) nativization processes are employed. some fairly simple. In some cases. others quite complex. thus. Nativization. if it can be called that.
Political domination 3-LINGUISTIC NATIONALISM or linguistic purism Consider German. foreign words appear both in adapted and in adopted form. it is quite common in morphology. adoptions As shows. the adapted word that is the more natural or popular. 2. الرائي تلفاز المذياع راديو Ger Radio (general use) Rundfunk (officialese) Telefon (general use) l'ernsprecher(officialese) This is due to the fact that attempts at purging the language of foreign adoptions met with only limited success . in others. in many cases. in some cases it is the adopted borrowing. The nature of linguistic nationalism is reflected in two ways. there is no consistency in the connotations associated with adaptations ( nativized) vs. 1-Adoption would be preferred where the structures of donor and borrowing language are sufficiently similar to permit the process to apply. then. often is used mainly in "officialese" or in specialized jargons. Linguistic nationalism or the effect of social attitudes on nativization. The other word.Though such unmodified adoption is rare in the phonological structure of words. First.
no new lexical item is introduced into the borrowing language. a foreign concept is borrowed only at the semantic level. Put differently. The polar opposite of lexical adoption is represented by LOAN SHIFTS. . These involve changing the meaning of an existing native word so as to accommodate the meaning of a foreign word. without its linguistic form (which is supplied from native sources) and consequently.
The process consists of translating morphologically complex foreign expressions by novel combinations of native elements that match the meanings and the structure of the foreign expressions and their component parts. . A process intermediate between adoption and loan shift is that of producing loan translations or CALQUES.
Borrowing is also sometimes referred to as “borrowing interference”. the term will be avoided as far as possible here. some general. Since the term “interference” has been used in a variety of conﬂicting senses. Weinreich 1953: 1 deﬁnes it as “deviations from the norm of either language which occur in the speech of bilinguals as a result of their familiarity with more than one language”). Instead. . reﬂecting a tendency within the ﬁeld to use the term “interference” as a cover term for all kinds of contact-induced change . some rather narrow (for instance. we will use terms like “contact-induced changes” and “cross-linguistic inﬂuence” as general labels to cover all kinds of inﬂuence by one language on another.
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