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e-math

Elementary Algebra

By: Karla Mae S. Glavez

SPCP

• In dealing with age problems, it is

important to keep in mind that the ages of

different people change at the same rate.

For example, after two years, all the

people in the given problem are two years

older than they were two years ago. Four

years ago, all the people in the problem

were four years younger.

• Also, it is easier if one makes a table

showing the representation for

current ages in the problem, “future”

ages (a number of years from now),

and “past” ages ( a number of years

ago).

• If possible, represent the youngest

present age by a single letter, then

represent the other ages. This process is

illustrated in the following examples.

example:

Next. . .

example 1

• EXAMPLE 1:

• Alvin is now 21 years older than his son. In 8

years, he will be twice as old as his son’s age.

What are their present ages?

• SOLUTION:

• READ: Reading the problem thoroughly,

we fin a relationship between the present ages of

Alvin and his son and the relationship of their

ages 8 years from now.

• REPRESENT: Using the relationship

between the present ages, we have

• Let x = the son’s present

age

• RELATE: Then, x + 21 = Alvin’s

present age

•

• After 8 years, each age is

increasen by 8: x + 8 and x + 29 as given

FUTURE ( 8

NOW YEARS FROM

NOW)

son x x+8

Alvin x + 21 x + 29

Using the vsecong relationship: In 8 years, Alvin’s age is twice his son’s age, we have

x + 29 = 2 ( x + 8)

SOLVE: Manipulating the equation, we have

x + 29 = 2(x + 8)

x + 29 = 2x + 16

x = 13

• ANSWERS: x = 13 son’s age

x + 21 = 13 + 21 = 34 Alvin’s age

• PROOF: Alvin’s age is 21 years more

than his son’s age: 34 = 13 + 21.

In 8 years:

son: 13 + 8 = 21

Alvin: 29 + 13 = 42

Alvin’s age is twice his son’s age:

42 = 2 (21)

• 42 = 42

Example 2

• The sum of Patrick’s age and Marko’s age

is 58. Eight years ago, Patrick was twice

as old as Marko then. How old is Marko?

• SOLUTION:

• READ: We find that we have a

relationship between their present ages

and their ages 8 years ago.

• REPRESENT: Let x = Marko’s present

age

• RELATE: Then 58 –

x = Patrick’s

present age

We

subtract 8 years NOW Past ( 8

from each as shown Years

in the table below. Ago)

Mako x x-8

Patrick 58 - x 50 - x

• EQUATE: The second relationship gives us

our equation: Eight years ago, Patrick was twice

as old as Marko then.

50 – x = 2(x – 8)

SOLVE: Manipulating the equation, we have:

50 – x = 2(x – 8)

50 – x = 2x – 16

3x = 66

x = 22

• ANSWERS: x = 22 Marko’s age

58 – x = 36 Patrick’s age

• PROOF: The sum of their ages is 58:

Marko’s age = 22

• Patrick’s

age = 36

• Add

58

• Eight years ago, Patrick was twice

as old as Marko then:

• 36 – 8 = 2(22 – 8)

• 28 = 2(14)

• 28 = 28

Example 3

• Aries is twice as old as Rico while Jake is 24

years younger than Aris. If half of Aries’ age six

years ago was three less than one-half the sum of

Rico’s age in four years and Jake’s present age,

find the ages of each.

• SOLUTION:

• Let x = Rico’s present age

• Then 2x = Aries’ present age

• And 2x – 24 = Jake’s present age

Now Past (6 Future

Years ( Years

Ago) From

Now)

Rico x x–6 x+4

Aries 2x 2x – 6 2x + 4

Jake 2x - 24 2x – 30 2x – 20

Half of Aries’ age 6 years ago was 3 les than one-half the sum of Rico’s age in 4

years and Jake’s present age:

½ (2x – 6) = ½ [(x + 4) + (2x – 24)] – 3

2x -6 = x + 4 + 2x – 24 -6

2x – 6 = 3x -26

x = 20

• ANSWERS: x = 20 Rico’s age

• 2x = 40 Aires’ age

• 2x – 24 = 16 Jake’s age

• PROOF: Arie’s is twice as old as Rico: 40

= 2(20)

• 40 = 40

• Jake’s is 24 years younger than Aries:

16 = 40 -24

• 16 = 16

• Half of Aries’ age 6 years ago was 3

less than one-half the sum of Rico’s age in 4 years

and Jakes present age:

• ½ (34) = ½ (24 + 16) -3

• 17 = 20 – 3

• 17 = 17

Example 4

• Mrs. Canteno is 40 years old and her eldest

daughter is 12. When will the mother be twice

as old as her eldest daughter?

• SOLUTION:

• Letx = the number of years that mother will

be twice as old as her eldest daughter.

• Then 40 + x = mother’s age in x years.

• And 12 + x = daughter’s age in x years

Now FUTURE ( X YEARS

FROM NOW)

Mother 40 40 + x

Daughter 12 12 + x

40 + x = 2(12 + x )

40 + x = 24 + 2x

Proof:

Mother’s age in 16 years: 40 + 16 = 56

Daughter’s age in 16 years: 12 + 16 = 28

56 = 2 (28)

56 = 56

EXERCISES:

1.) Mercy is 17 years old now. Represent her age –

a. 2 years from now c. x years from now e. x +

7 years hence

b. 3 years ago d. 2x years ago

2.) Melchor is m years old now. Represent his age –

a. 15 years from now c. a years ago e. 5x

years from now

b. 11 years ago d. n + 5 years ago

3.) Mr. Matthew Matics is y + 5 years old now. Represent his

age –

a. 3 years ago d. 5y years from now

b. 8 years from now e. 3y – 5 years from now

c. 2y + 3 years ago

4.) In 4 years, Mr5. Parabola will be 17 years old. Represent

his age –

a. now c. 6 years from now e. a – 3 from now

b. 8 years ago d. x years ago

5.) Arielle will be 57 years old p years from now. Represent her age –

a. now c. 4 years from now e. m years ago

b. 3 years ago d. m years from now

6.) Five years ago, Edwin was 27 years old. Represent his age –

a. at present c. 5 years from now e. q years from now

b. 3 years from now d. q years ago

7.) P years ago, Mr. Reyes was Q years old. Represent his age –

a. at present c. 5 years ago e. P + 4 years ago

b. 2 years from now d. R years from now

ANSWERS

1.) C.

2.) C.

3.) D.

4.) B.

5.) D.

6.) C.

7.) D.

Solve each of the

following

1.) Mr. Reyes is 25 years older than his son.

How old are the father and the son if Mr.

Reyes is 5 more then thrice as old as his

son?

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