16 February 2012

a) b) c) d) e) f) Brief introduction Methodology Result Analysis Researchers Findings Summary/ Conclusion 2 .

 Globalisation increases the needs for people with a global mind-set ◦ Need for expatriates  Problem: many expatriates cannot adjust to new surroundings/ cultures ◦ Bad job performance -> Finding appropriate candidates is a great challenges for organisations! 3 .

713 questionnaires sent out 343 questionnaires completed (Response rate 20%) Participants: ◦ Western Business Expatriates in Hong Kong    4 . Mail survey 1.

◦ Hypothesis 2: Gender is not associated with expatriates’ adjustment to Hong Kong. Selmer (2001) derived three hypotheses from the existing literature: ◦ Hypothesis 1: Expatriates’ age is positively associated with adjustment to Hong Kong. 5 . ◦ Hypothesis 3: Married expatriates are better adjusted to Hong Kong than unmarried expatriates.

 Expatriate mean score for social cultural variables above the mid-level point The mean score of psychological adjustment also above the mid-level point  6 .

expatriates must have the knowledge and skills   Expatriation failures 7 . Organisations need their employees to have ability to work across cultural silos To have a global mindset.

adjustment to interacting with host nationals. Black and Gregersen (1991a) found that the standard of living had a positive relationship with spouses’ general adjustment.      If the expatriates are unable to adjust to work and life in general in the new cultural context. and adjustment to the general non-work environment. Black et al. to reduce costs (Frazee. 1997). 1997). instead of the traditional 3–5 year postings. they are likely to perform poorly at their foreign assignment or return back home (Ones and Viswesvaran. 1997) As expatriates are among the most costly employees of any business organization. (1991) made a distinction between three dimensions of in-country adjustment: adjustment to work. many multinational corporations (MNCs) have changed their international assignment policies (Brewster and Scullion. longer than a month but less than a year. It is likely that older expatriates will find it easier to live and work in Hong Kong since their suitability will be less in doubt by local people making it easier for them to adjust than younger expatriates. Firms have also been reported to use more short-term international assignments. 8 .

International firms may use this personnel characteristics as necessary minimum requirement.  9 . This study has demonstrated the usefulness of personnel characteristics in searching for expatriates candidates for foreign assignments.

In Aycan. (ed. C.S. M. C.S. Z. (1997) ‘Personality Determinants in the Prediction of Aspects of Expatriate Job Success’. Human Resource Management Journal. H. Black. c Rim Assignments ’.  Ones. G. (1991) ‘Toward a Comprehensive Model of International Adjustment: An Integration of Multiple Theoretical Perspectives ’. 7(3): 32–41. Workforce. (1991a) ‘Antecedents to CrossCultural Adjustment for Expatriates in Paci. 16(2): 291–317.) Expatriate Management: Theory and Research. April: 8. Human Relations. V.  Black. Academy of Management Review. 10 . J. Frazee. (1997) ‘A Review and Agenda for Expatriate HRM’.S. and Oddou..   Brewster. CT: JAI Press. D. 44(5): 497–515. and Gregersen. and Scullion. (1997) ‘Short-Term Assignments Grow in Popularity’.Greenwich. H. Mendenhall.B. J. and Viswesvaran.

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