Well Head Equipments

Used to provide support to strings. To provide seal between the strings. Control production from the well. Components of WHA
1. Christmas Tree:-A Christmas tree is the assembly of gate valves, chokes, and fittings that controls the flow of oil or gas during production. Tree design is based on the number of tubing strings used for completion, tubing bore size, maximum anticipated production pressure, trim requirements, and flow rates.  The bottom connection of the tree matches the top connection of the tubing head adapter. The tree and adapter are usually made up and installed as a unit immediately after tubing is suspended.

. The tree consists primarily of a series of gate valves and a production choke. Christmas trees always have at least one master valve. usually two are used. Gate valves located between the tubing head adapter and the production tee are called master valves.

called a wing valve. A gate valve called a crown valve or working valve is often placed above the production tee.    . installing a backpressure valve. Dual master valves allow the use of the top master valve for normal use. This valve facilitates installation or dismantling of a lubricator without shutting in the well. swabbing. Replacement of the top master valve can be accomplished with relative ease by isolating the upper portion of the tree with the lower master valve. A gate valve is almost always placed immediately off of the production tee. thus reducing wear on the lower master valve. This valve. can be used to shut off flow to the production facilities and still allow work down the tree or tubing. A tree cap is sometimes installed on top of each tree above the crown valve to provide quick access to the tubing bore for bottomhole testing. which is the most difficult to replace.

and provides a means of suspending and packing off the next casing string. the casing head is typically qualified to withstand up to 10.000 psi working pressure. It suspends the casing and packs off the next casing string while providing annular outlets. Sliploc). threaded. Providing attachment to the surface casing string through the type of bottom connection (Slip-on-weld.Casing head The lowest part of the wellhead that is almost always connected to the surface casing string. as well as supporting the BOP while drilling the remaining stages  .

  It is composed of casing hanger bowl to receive casing hanger necessary to support the next casing string. if necessary. so that pressure reading may be taken on annulus pressure and means provided to bleed off pressure or pump into the annulus. a top flange for attaching BOP and other casing head or tubing head and a lower connection. . Most of the casing heads are equipped with two side outlets.

An additional function of the casing spool is to allow for testing BOPs while drilling. Each casing spool in the wellhead stackup hangs each casing sting after the casing head and before the tubing head. and pressuretesting casing seals through a test port. retaining the bowl protector.Casing Spools Equipment responsible for hanging the next casing string. .

these manual casing hangers are designed to use the seal to provide an energized seal. These hangers fit standard wellheads and can be lowered through the BOP before or after the cement has been set.Casing Hangers   Mechanism that locks into the casing head. Designed with a "Type H" seal ring as a feature. . responsible for hanging the casing pipe.

The top spool on a wellhead assembly contains the highest pressure in the wellhead. When the well is completed. the tree is installed on top of the head with a tubing head adapter. . the tubing head is a necessary component when drilling and completing a well. and contains a load shoulder to hang the tubing hanger and tubing string. Providing a means to support and test the BOPs while completing the well.Tubing Head   Equipment attached to the casing spool used to hang the tubing (smallest casing string) and seal the annulus between the tubing and casing.

Tubing Head Adapters Equipment used to adapt the uppermost connection of the tubing head to the lowermost section of the tree. Tubing head adapters are available for all types of single and multi-string completions. each designed to work with a set group of tubing heads and hangers. flanged. and the top flange of the adapter matches the X-MAS tree. It can provides a connection between tubing head and Christmas tree. or studdedtop connections. most adapters can be machined with a hydraulic supply inlet for downhole control lines. the tubing head adapter is used for both single and multiple completions. Providing a transition from the wellhead to the tree. With threaded. . Standard tubing head adapter product line consists of nine models. The bottom flange of the adapter matches the tubing head.