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loop equation

20050300

HYUN KYU SHIM

Definitions

Connected Graph : A lumped network

graph is said to be connected if there

exists at least one path among the

branches (disregarding their

orientation ) between any pair of

nodes.

Sub Graph : A sub graph is a subset

of the original set of graph branches

along with their corresponding nodes.

(A) Connected Graph (B) Disconnected Graph

Cut – Set

Given a connected lumped network

graph, a set of its branches is said to

constitute a cut-set if its removal

separates the remaining portion of the

network into two parts.

Tree

Given a lumped network graph,

an associated tree is any

connected subgraph which is

comprised of all of the nodes of

the original connected graph, but

has no loops.

Loop

Given a lumped network graph, a

loop is any closed connected path

among the graph branches for

which each branch included is

traversed only once and each

node encountered connects

exactly two included branches.

Theorems

(a) A graph is a tree if and only if there

exists exactly one path between an

pair of its nodes.

(b) Every connected graph contains a

tree.

(c) If a tree has n nodes, it must have

n-1 branches.

Fundamental cut-sets

Given an n - node connected network

graph and an associated tree, each of

the n -1 fundamental cut-sets with

respect to that tree is formed of one

tree branch together with the minimal

set of links such that the removal of

this entire cut-set of branches would

separate the remaining portion of the

graph into two parts.

Fundamental cutset matrix

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¹

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

´

¦

÷

+

+

. cutset

with associated branch tree the as cutset

defining surface closed the to regard h wit

on oriientati opposite the has and cutset in is branch if : 1

. cutset in not is branch if : 0

. set - cut with associated branch

tree the as cutset defining surface closed the to regard

n with orientatio same the has and cutset in is branch if : 1

i

i

i j

i j

i

i

i j

ij

q

Nodal incidence matrix

The fundamental cutset equations

may be obtained as the appropriately

signed sum of the Kirchhoff `s current

law node equations for the nodes in

the tree on either side of the

corresponding tree branch, we may

always write

(A is nodal incidence matrix)

a

WA Q =

Loop incidence matrix

Loop incidence matrix defined by

¦

¦

¦

¦

¹

¦

¦

¦

¦

´

¦

+

÷

loop. the as direction opposite in the

oriented is and loop in is branch if : 1 -

. loop in not is branch if : 0

loop. the as direction same in the

oriented is and loop in is branch if : 1

i j

i j

i j

b

ij

Loop incidence matrix & KVL

We define branch voltage vector

We may write the KVL loop equations

conveniently in vector – matrix form as

)]` ( ),..., ( ), ( [ ) (

2 1

t v t v t v t v

b b

÷

t all for 0 ) ( = t v B

b a

General Case

t) all (for 0 ) ( ) ( ) (

3 2 1

= ÷ ÷ t v t v t v

t) all (for 0 ) ( ) ( ) (

3 2 1

= + ÷ t i t i t i

To obtain the cut set equations for an

n-node , b-branch connected lumped

network, we first write Kirchhoff `s law

The close relation of these

expressions with

0 ) ( ÷ t Qi

b

) ( ` ) ( t v Q t v

t b

÷

0 ) ( ÷ t Ai

b

) ( ` ) ( t v A t v

n b

÷

b b b b

t v y t i t + = ) ( ) (

) (

k b

y diag y ÷

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¹

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

´

¦

÷

source current t independen an contains branch th if : 0

L value of inductance an contains branch th if :

L

1

R value of resistance a contains branch th if :

R

1

C value of e capacitanc a contains branch th if : C

source. voltage indepedent an contains branch th if : 0

k

k

k

k

k k

k

k

D

k

k D

k

y

k

And current vector is specified as

follows

b

t

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¹

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

´

¦

=

÷

.

.

function time by the specified source

current t independen an contains branch th if : ) (

) (t condition initial

with the inductance an contains branch th if :

resistance a contains branch th if : 0

e capacitanc a contains branch th if : 0

source t voltage independen an contains branch th if : ) (

0 0

0

k

k

k k

k

k

k

i

k t i

i i

k i

k

k

k t i

t

Hence,

We obtain cutset equations

b t b b

Q t v Q Qy t Qi t + = = ) ( ` ) ( 0

b t b

Q t v Q Qy t ÷ = ) ( `

) ( ` ) ( t v Q t v

i

b

.

.

÷

b

i

b

Q t v Q Qy t ÷ = .

.

) ( `

Example

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

+

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

.

0

) (

) (

0

) (

) (

0 0 0 0

0

1

0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0

1

0

0 0 0 0 0

) (

0 4

1

t i

t i

t i

t v

CD

LD

R

t i

b b

hence the fundamental cutset matrix

yields the cutset equations

(

¸

(

¸

+

+

=

1 - 1 - 1 - 1 0

1 - 1 - 1 - 0 1

Q

(

(

¸

(

¸

+

+ + ÷

=

(

(

¸

(

¸

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

+ + +

+ +

.

.

.

) ( ) (

) ( ) ( ) (

) (

) (

1 1

1

1

1

0 4

0 4 1

2

t i t i

t i t i t i

t v

t v

CD

LD R

CD

LD

CD

LD

CD

LD

In this case we need only solve

for the voltage function to obtain

every branch variable.

} }

+ + ÷ ÷ = + +

.

.

.

t

t

t

t

t i t i

dt

t v d

C d v

L dt

t dv

C d v

L

t v

R

0 0

) ( ) (

) (

) (

1 ) (

) (

1

) (

1

0 4

2

2 2

t t t t

2

v

Definitions

Connected Graph : A lumped network graph is said to be connected if there exists at least one path among the branches (disregarding their orientation ) between any pair of nodes.

Sub Graph : A sub graph is a subset of the original set of graph branches along with their corresponding nodes.

(A) Connected Graph (B) Disconnected Graph .

Cut – Set Given a connected lumped network graph. . a set of its branches is said to constitute a cut-set if its removal separates the remaining portion of the network into two parts.

but has no loops.Tree Given a lumped network graph. an associated tree is any connected subgraph which is comprised of all of the nodes of the original connected graph. .

a loop is any closed connected path among the graph branches for which each branch included is traversed only once and each node encountered connects exactly two included branches. .Loop Given a lumped network graph.

(c) If a tree has n nodes. it must have n-1 branches.Theorems (a) A graph is a tree if and only if there exists exactly one path between an pair of its nodes. (b) Every connected graph contains a tree. .

Fundamental cut-sets Given an n .node connected network graph and an associated tree. each of the n -1 fundamental cut-sets with respect to that tree is formed of one tree branch together with the minimal set of links such that the removal of this entire cut-set of branches would separate the remaining portion of the graph into two parts. .

. 0 : if branch j is not in cutset i. qij 1: if branch j is in cutset i and has the opposite oriientation with regard to the closed surface defining cutset i as the tree branch associated with cutset i.set i.Fundamental cutset matrix 1: if branch j is in cutset i and has the same orientation with regard to the closed surface defining cutset i as the tree branch associated with cut .

we may always write a Q WA (A is nodal incidence matrix) .Nodal incidence matrix The fundamental cutset equations may be obtained as the appropriately signed sum of the Kirchhoff `s current law node equations for the nodes in the tree on either side of the corresponding tree branch.

. . bij 0 : if branch j is not in loop i.1 : if branch j is in loop i and is oriented in the opposite direction as the loop.Loop incidence matrix Loop incidence matrix defined by 1 : if branch j is in loop i and is oriented in the same direction as the loop.

.Loop incidence matrix & KVL We define branch voltage vector vb (t ) [v1 (t )... v2 (t ).. vb (t )]` We may write the KVL loop equations conveniently in vector – matrix form as Ba vb (t ) 0 for all t .

General Case v1 (t ) v2 (t ) v3 (t ) 0 (for all t) .

i1 (t ) i2 (t ) i3 (t ) 0 (for all t) .

To obtain the cut set equations for an n-node . b-branch connected lumped network. we first write Kirchhoff `s law Qib (t ) 0 vb (t ) Q`vt (t ) The close relation of these expressions with Aib (t ) 0 vb (t ) A`vn (t ) .

C k D : if kth branch contains a capacitance of value C k 1 yk : if kth branch contains a resistance of value R k R k 1 : if kth branch contains an inductance of value L k Lk D 0 : if kth branch contains an independent current source .ib (t ) yb vb (t ) b yb diag( yk ) 0 : if kth branch contains an indepedent voltage source.

And current vector b is specified as follows ik (t ) : if kth branch contains an independent voltage source 0 : if kth branch contains a capacitance 0 : if kth branch contains a resistance i : if kth branch contains an inductance with the k0 k initial condition ik (t 0 ) ik 0 i k (t ) : if kth branch contains an independent current source specified by the time function i k .

QybQ`vt (t ) Q b vb (t ) Q`vi (t ) We obtain cutset equations Qyb Q`vi (t ) Q b .0 Qib (t ) QybQ`vt (t ) Q b Hence.

Example 0 0 ib (t ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 i1 (t ) 1 0 0 0 0 R 0 0 0 0 vb (t ) i (t ) i4 (t0 ) 1 0 0 0 LD 0 0 0 0 CD .

1 .1 .1 yields the cutset equations 1 LD CD 1 CD LD 1 CD i1 (t ) i (t ) i4 (t0 ) LD v(t ) 1 1 v2 (t ) i (t ) i4 (t0 ) CD R LD .1 Q 0 1 .hence the fundamental cutset matrix 1 0 .1 .1 .

.In this case we need only solve 1 1 t dv2 (t ) 1 t d v(t ) v2 (t ) t v2 ( )d C t v( )d C i (t ) i4 (t0 ) R L dt L dt 0 0 for the voltage functionv2 to obtain every branch variable.

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