Research: Introductory

Prof. Dr. Md. Ghulam Murtaza Khulna University Khulna, Bangladesh 23 February 2012

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…mental images as summary devices for bringing together observations and experiences that seem to have something in common …the process of specifying the vague mental imagery in sorting out the kinds of observations and measurements that will be appropriate for the research ….means drawing boundaries around terms to make these tangible, to be happened … is an early planning stage in the development of a research initiative (a program announcement, request for applications, or request for proposals).

or develop new theories. to establish novel facts.. solve new or existing problems. information C = careful recording.Definitions          R = rationale way of thinking E = expert/exhaustive treatment S = search for solution E = exactness A = adequate the search for knowledge. with an open mind. critical observations H = honesty. hard work ……. or as any systematic investigation. systematic search for knowledge  . prove new ideas. ……. analytical analysis R = relationships among facts.

J. Martin(2008). testing and evaluation.). conducting. designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge  .com/definition-of-search.Definitions A broad definition of research is given by Martin Shuttleworth . including research development. information and facts for the advancement of knowledge (Shuttleworth."In the broadest sense of the word."Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue". (2008).)  Creswell states . and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (3rd ed.experiment-resources. collect data to answer the question.http://www. It consists of three steps: Pose a question.systematic investigation. the definition of research includes any gathering of data. Educational Research: Planning. Upper Saddle River: Pearson)..html.  …. W. and present an answer to the question (Creswell.

com). 1964). especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of the formal. New York: Harper & Row Publishers.merriam-webster. http://www. …. J Francis..” a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge (Rummel. revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts. 2nd edition.. systematic and intensive process of carrying on the scientific method of analysis …is the systematic collection. or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws“ (Merriam Webster (m-w.Definitions      The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as "a studious inquiry or examination. analysis and interpretation of data to answer a certain question or to solve a problem . …. Encyclopædia Britannica.a devoted attempt of finding out the truth …. An Introduction to Research Procedures in Education.

figure or phenomenon.  …. C. analysis and interpretation of facts that lines an individual’s speculation with reality. India: New Age International Publishers. Research methodology: Methods & techniques. presentation. the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem” (Kothari.  .  ….Definitions …… is a process of finding facts and arranging them in such a manner that information is obtained regarding any fact. the scientific investigation of phenomena which includes “the pursuit of truth with the help of study. comparison and experiment. 2006.R..

Importance/Purpose The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines (http://www.experiment-resources.html#ixzz1mzP5OE9a)  to solve problems  to make a sound decision. is very vital to our everyday decision making.  to obtain academic degrees  to unveil the truth  to acquaint with the facts/happening  to find out causal/underlying relationships .com/purposeof-research.

. to solve practical problems of the society for enjoyment. a researcher may be called upon to study a specified phenomenon by some higher authority. confirm existing ones or disapprove the previous ones to be informed about the situation to contribute to the existing body of knowledge. This is mainly triggered by curiosity about a subject. to generate new theories.Importance/Purpose        to fulfill an academic requirement for example as partial fulfillment for the award of a doctorate degree. some people enjoy the intellectual challenge of creative work delegation by some authority.

 Prediction . research helps test theories about some issues. . relies on statistical analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis.Research is used to help assess a situation and predict what may happen in the future.Importance/Purpose The purposes may be :  Explanation .Possibly the most cited reason for conducting research is to use it to explain why something is occurring.  Monitoring .Finally. Hypothesis testing.Many decisions made must be monitored to insure that goals are being attained.  Discovery/New improved situation – finding out new situation  Hypothesis Testing . which is at the heart of scientific research.

predictions are usually stated as hypotheses. establishing facts and developing new methods.Importance/Purpose Research in whatever field of inquiry has four purposes: Describing and explaining: This is the attempt to understand the world we live in.  Control: Control represents the way in which research can be applied to real problems and situations. clear unambiguous statements which can be subjected to scientific verification or refutation. We are able to say that given these conditions then this is likely to happen.  . Research is concerned with acquiring knowledge. thus helping us to shape our environment. i. When we understand the relationship between variables we are able to control our environment to suit our interests.e.  Prediction: In research.

on events or data that can be verified by observation. Requires careful and accurate observation and description. tools and conclusions. Logical and objective. analysis and reporting. collection of data. It follows clearly stipulated procedures. Generalizing findings to larger groups by discovering general principles that will be helpful in predicting future occurrences. Systematic in procedures of planning. every possible step is taken to ensure validity of procedure. Research findings sometimes contrary to popular belief.Characteristics         Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. . Directed towards the solution of a problem. i.e. Relies on empirical evidence.

Analytical. Research exhibits careful and precise judgment. Research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering the data. Replicability. Logical. Cyclical. Research is a cyclical process because it starts with a problem and ends with a problem. Research is conducted in a methodical manner without bias using systematic method and procedures. Research is based on valid procedures and principles. .Characteristics        Empirical. whether historical. experimental and case study. Research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher. descriptive. The research design and procedures are replicated or repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results. Methodical. Critical.

 Empirical  Systematic  Controlled (http://gulnazahmad.Characteristics Reliability  Validity  Systematic  Critical  Rigorous  Accuracy  Credibility   .

 Intellectual Honesty.  Prudence. and situations around him/her.  Healthy Criticism. efficiently.Characteristics Characteristics of the Researcher Intellectual Curiosity. An intelligent researcher is honest to collect or gather data or facts in order to arrive at honest results. A researcher undertakes a deep thinking and inquiry of the things. and economically.  Intellectual Creativity – A productive and resourceful investigator always creates new researches. The researcher is careful to conduct his/her research study at the right time and at the right place wisely.  . The researcher is always doubtful as to the truthfulness of the results.

Characteristics Qualities of a Good researcher:           Research-oriented Efficient Scientific Effective Active Resourceful Creative Honest Economical Religious .

Two major categories:   Basic Research Applied Research .Typologies Research can be classified by purpose or by method.

In fact. knowledge and methods for solving an existing problem.Typologies BASIC RESEARCH Also called Pure or fundamental Research. It is conducted to satisfy any curiosity such as: (a) what makes things happen. The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge.  Applied research It is use of basic research or past theories. more emphasis is being given to applied research to solve problems arising out of overpopulation and scarcity of natural resources. it is undertaken for increase in knowledge.   . basic research is purely theoretical to increase our understanding of certain phenomena or behavior but does not seek to solve any existing problem. It deals with practical problems. Applied research should not be treated the same as Research & Development (R&D) which is involved in developing ideas/products demanded by the existing clients. In the present world situation. it is the source of most new theories. principles and ideas. (b) why society changes and (c) why social relations are in a certain way. To sum up.

where the researcher introduces conditions that influence participants.Typologies  Research may be Obtrusive or Non-Obtrusive  Obtrusive research . Where the researcher manipulates the environment.  Non-obtrusive research . and deliberate intervention to improve practice. Action research is a methodology that combines action and research to examine specific questions.where researcher avoids influencing subjects in any way and tries to be as inconspicuous as possible. . issues or phenomena through observation and reflection.

with the aim of improving health. Epidemiological research is concerned with the description of health and welfare in populations through the collection of data related to health and the frequency. Basic research is experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire new knowledge without looking for long-term benefits other than the advancement of knowledge. concept or campaign in achieving its objectives.Typologies Applied research is research undertaken to solve practical problems rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge sake. . Clinical trials are research studies undertaken to determine better ways to prevent. Evaluation research is research conducted to measure the effectiveness or performance of a program. diagnose or treat diseases. screen for. distribution and determinants of disease in populations.

in-depth interviews. beliefs. summarisation. intercept and door-to-door interviews as well as self-completion methods such as mail outs and online surveys. Quantitative research is research concerned with the measurement of attitudes.Typologies Literature review is a critical examination. motivations and behaviours of individuals to explore a social or human problem and include methods such as focus groups. interpretation or evaluation of existing literature in order to establish current knowledge on a subject. observation research and case studies. Qualitative research is research undertaken to gain insights concerning attitudes. . behaviours and perceptions and includes interviewing methods such as telephone.

Typologies Service or program monitoring and evaluation involves collecting and analysing a range of processes and outcome data in order to assess the performance of a service or program and to determine if the intended or expected results have been achieved. looking for trends or tendencies . Ex-post research: relation between dependable and undependable variables Experimental/Laboratory research: Survey research: Historical research: describes what was-mostly non obtrusive Descriptive research: describes what is-mostly non-obtrusive Correlation research: makes comparisons.

Think and ask me questions .