Growth and development

Growth and Development as a unit expresses the sum of numerous changes that take place during the life cycle of an individual. The entire course is a dynamic process that encompasses several inter-related dimensions.

There is no universally accepted definition of growth……
J.S. Huxley Krogman “The self multiplication of living substance.” “Increase in size, change in proportion and progressive complexity.” “An increase in size.” “Entire series of sequential anatomic and physiologic changes taking place from the beginning of prenatal life to senility

Todd Meridith-

Moss Profit

“Quantitative aspect of biologic development per unit of time.”
Change in any morphological parameter which Is measurable Growth refers to an increase in size/number

Generally growth is irreversible. It is partially true as in the in the case of increase in the length of the body. Growth may be reversible as seen in the case of increase in weight of the body . Though growth is generally associated with an increase in size and unidirectional , yet some conditions involving regression are also considered to take place during growth. For example, the atrophy of the thymus gland

Development .

Development refers to all the naturally occurring unidirectional changes in the life of an individual from its existence as a single cell to its elaboration as a multifunctional unit terminating in death. Development = Growth + differentiation + translocation .

Development is characterized by changes in complexity.. yet modified by the environment The changes associated with aging i.e. all of which is under genetic control. and more independence.degeneration and senility are considered by some as a part of maturation. a shift to fixation of function. while others consider It as part of development .

Differenti .

Differentiation is the change from a generalized cell or tissue to one that is more specialized. Thus differentiation is a change in quality or kind. The stabilization of the adult stage brought about by the growth & development is called Maturation .

Factors That Affect Growth And Development .

he or she will be short even with the proper nourishment.1. . • Children inherit some physical characteristics from parents. • The genes hence play a major role in the overall growth of a person. If a child inherited shortness.Heredity • Heredity is the passing on of characteristics from parents to their children.

quality and texture of tissues. • Malnutrition may affect all aspects of growth including size of parts.2. and onset of growth events. body proportions. .Health • Health means being physically. • A child who is healthy grows and develops faster than the one who is sickly. mentally and socially fit.

This is termed as catch-up growth. the growth process accelerates when proper nutrition is provided. • If the adverse effects are not too severe. .• The effects of malnutrition are reversible to a certain extent as children have fine recuperative powers.

• Eat fruits and vegetables. • Eat less fatty. • Drink plenty of water. Too much of these can cause illnesses. salty or sweet foods. They are the foods that make you grow. Others should be lightly cooked so that their nutrients will not be lost. A balanced diet has the right kinds of food in the right amount. . They are foods that regulate your growth. • Eat a balanced diet. • Eat protein-rich food.Good Food Habits • Eat plenty of food from grains and cereals. Your body parts need water to do their work. They are the food that give you energy. Some vegetables are good if eaten raw.

in which case the child may become paralyzed or mentally retarded.3. • Immunization means injecting into the body a weakened form of germs. .Diseases • Some diseases may affect babies before they are born or at birth. These diseases may affect some parts of the body like the brain. Blindness may also affect development of physical and social capabilities of children. • SOME DISEASES SLOW DOWN ONE’S GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. • Cerebral palsy is a disorder that affects a person’s movement and posture.

. • Prolonged and debilitating illness however can have a marked effect on all aspects of growth.• The usual minor childhood illness ordinarily cannot be shown to have much effect on physical growth.

Children who are loved grow up with a feeling of security. A small family can meet its basic needs. children grow up to be well-adjusted and confident of themselves. • Family affects the growth and development of children. What children experience in the family affect their growth and development. Negative experiences in the family may affect children. • Surroundings affect the growth and development of children. A clean surrounding is good for one’s health. children are likely to be sickly. • Surroundings affect children.Family and Surroundings • Children grow up in a family. . emotional and social needs are provided • For.4. If their physical. If the place they live in is polluted.

• Rest and recreation help a child develop physically.5.Rest and Recreation • Recreation. mentally and socially. • Recreational Activities-Activities that you do voluntarily because you like it to. • It is an activity done for activity engaged in to restore strength and spirits after work. .

• They also grow to a larger size than children living in unfavorable socioeconomic environment.economic factors • Children brought up in affluent and favorable socio-economic conditions show earlier onset of growth events.6. .Socio.

.7.Climatic and seasonal effects • Seasonal variation have been shown to affect adipose tissue content and the weight of new born babies. • Climatic changes seem to have little direct effect on rate of growth.

Psychological disturbances • Children experiencing stressful conditions display an inhibition of growth hormone secretion. • Psychological disturbances of prolonged duration can hence markedly retard growth.8. .

• Certain aspects of growth such as development of some motor skills and increase in muscle mass is found to be influenced by exercise.Exercise • Exercises are essential for a healthy body.9. Strenuous and regular exercises have not been associated with more favorable growth. .


is ordinarily seen or is typical. .1. • Normal refers to a range • Another aspect of cranio facial growth is that normality changes with age.Concept of normality • Normal refers to that which is usually expected.

2.Rhythm of growth • Human growth is not a steady & uniform process wherein all parts of die body enlarge at the same rate & the increments of one year arc equal to that of the proceeding or succeeding year • This growth rhythm is most clearly seen in stature or body height .


.• It is most intense and rapid during the first 2 years. • There follows a slower increase terminating in • Boys -10th to 12th year • Girls -no later than 10th year.


3. • Periods when a sudden acceleration of growth occurs. .Growth Spurt Sudden increase in growth is termed "growth spurt".

16 years Girls : 11-13 years – Pre-Pubertal growth spurt . – – – Just before birth One year after birth Mixed dentition growth spurt • Boys : 8-11 years • Girls : 7-9 years • • Boys : 14 .• TIMINGS OF GROWTH SPURTS.

Significance…. • Growth modification by means of Functional and orthodontic appliances Elicit better response during growth spurts. .

• • 1. Cephalo-caudal gradient of growth .Differential growth • Different organs grow at different rates to a different amount & at different times.Scammon's curve of growth 2.4.

1. eyes. and spleen pre-adolescent maximum. Lymphoid curve tonsils. Genital slow in the prepubertal period rapid at adolescence 3. intestines. General or Somatic curve height. weight. appendix. Neural curve brain.Scammon's curve of growth 1. skull. muscle 2. skeleton. adenoids. ears development earlier than any other tissues or organs no adolescent spurt 4. followed by regression to adult value .

Neural curve • Neural tissue grows very rapidly and reaches adult size by 6-7 years.1. . Lymphoid curve Lymphoid tissue proliferates rapidly in late childhood and reaches almost 200% of adult size • An adaptation to protect children from infection • By 18 years LYMPHOID tissue undergoes involution to reach adult size. 2. • Very little growth of neural tissue occurs after 6-7 years.

a rapid phase of growth occurs terminating by the 18 . bones and other organs. Genital slow in the pre-pubertal period rapid at adolescence • • .20th year 4.3. General or Somatic curve • Consists of the muscles. After the 10th year. These tissues exhibit an "S" shaped curve with rapid growth up to 2-3 years followed by a slow phase of growth between 3-10 years.

.2. Cephalo-caudal gradient of growth • A comparison of the body proportion Between pre-natal and post-natal life reveals Post-natal growth of regions of the body that are away from the HYPOPHYSIS is more.

METHODS OF GATHERING GROWTH DATA • Longitudinal Studies • Cross sectional studies • Semi .longitudinal studies .


Experimental approaches . Measurement approaches II.METHODS OF STUDYING GROWTH I.

Measurement approaches .I.

Bimetric tests • Height.Skeletal maturation & ossification • Compared with standards .They comprise of measurement techniques that are carried out on living individuals. Weight. These methods do not harm the animal.

Experimental approaches .II.

• dye in the madder plant.Vital staining • Belchier. ALIZARIN was identified and used for bone research. in 1936 accidentally noted that bones of animals who had eaten madder plants were stained red. .1.

Significance…. • duration and amount of growth • Other dyes used • • • • Acid Alizarin Blue Trypon blue Lead acetate Tetracycline . • site of growth. • the direction.

. • Involves implanting of small bits in growing bone. Radioisotopes • Technetium 33 • Calcium 45 • Potassium 32 3.2.Implants • Introduced by Bijork in 1969. They serve as radiographic reference points for analysis.

Areas where implants were used .

4. Radiographic techniques • Cephalometry • Hand-wrist xrays .

Comparitive study . Natural markers 6.5.

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