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Classification of Microorganisms

DOMAIN PHYLUM CLASS ORDER SUBORDER FAMILY GENUS SPECIES SUBSPECIES

: BACTERIA , ARCHAEA, EUKARYA

: : -ALES : -INEAE :-CEAE

DOMAIN BACTERIA NONPROTEOBACTERIA gram positive gram negative DEINOCOCCUS PROTEOBACTERIA FIRMICUTES ACTINOBACTERIA gram positive .

cellulose. chemolithoautotroph oxidizes H2. : chitin. psittaci membrane (ICM) Treponema chemoheterotropic. S2O32-. have OM and L-ornithine in PG.prod Sphingolipids in CW Cytophaga. parasites. radiodurans Radiation resistant. lack teichoic acid and PM has palmitoleic acid (no phosphatidyl glycerol phospholipids Closely related PHYLUM Chlamydiae •Hydrogenobacter PHYLUM Planctomycetes PHYLUM Spirochaetes PHYLUM Bacteroidetes Motile free Lack PG Lack PG CLASS CLASS CLASS living. pneumoniae pectin.NON PROTEOBACTERIA (gram negative) Bacterial Thermophiles PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA PHYLUM Chloroflexi PHYLUM Chlorobi PHYLUM Cyanobacteria PHYLUM Aquificae •Oldest bacteria •Chemoautolithotrophs •Aquifex pyrophilus (85oC optimum and max 95oC. Sporocytophaga palladium uce mixture of organic Chlamydoiophila Anammoxosome Borrelia acids as fermentative Digest complex carbhy. aerobic. agar burgdorferi products . Chlamydia trachomatis Intracytoplasmic C. keratin. S with O2 as terminal acceptor) PHYLUM Thermotogae PHYLUM DeinococcusThermus •Second oldest •Optimum 80oC and max. Obligate interacellular Compartmentaliz Flavo Bacteroides Sphingo bacteria symbiotic. non motile ed cells bacteria parasitic Anaerobic. 90oC •Chemoheterotroph (glycolytic pathway) grow anaerobically on CHO and prt •Thermotoga (24% coding seq similar to archaea) CLASS: Denicocci ORDER: Deniococcales Thermales D. staingram +ve.

blue green algae •Phycobilisomes •CO2 assm. Oscillatoria (pollution resistant). Anabaena (algal blooms).PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA Anoxygenic Bacteria PHYLUM Chlorobi •Green Sulfur Bacteria •CLASS Chlorobia •ORDER Chlorobiaceae •Use H2S. organic acids and H2S. fungi. b lack phycobilins (only prokaryotes PHYLUM Chloroflexi •Green Non Sulfur Bacteria •Photosyn and non photosyn •e.donors (variety of sugars. Microcystis. Cocci or Vibrios •Chlorobium Oxygenic Bacteria PHYLUM Cyanobacteria •Have chl and PSI and II. Chlorococcus •Prochlorophytes: have chl a. elemental Sulfur and H2 as edonors •Rods. aa. By Calvin cycle (enzymes in carboxysomes) •Have heterocysts to fix N2 (less NO2 and NH3) •Trichodesmium (fix N2) •Nostoc. plants . protozoa. H2 and S •Some members are sulfur and some are green •Chloroflexus aurantiacus •Cyanobacteria •Form symbiotic relation ship with lichens.

-.and γproteobacte ria •Purple Non Sulfur Bacteria •Bchl a or b PHYLUM Cyanobacteria •Cyanobacteria •Chl a +phycobiliprots.d or e •Chlorosomes PHYLUM Chloroflexi •Green Non Sulfur Bacteria •Bchl and c •Purple Sulfur Bacteria •Bchl a or b α.PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA Anoxygenic Bacteria Oxygenic Bacteria PHYLUM Chlorobi •Green Sulfur Bacteria •Bchla + c. β. (phycocyanin and phycoerythrin) •Thalakoid membranes lines with phycobilisomes •Non motile •Chlorosomes prst when grown anaerobically α and βproteobacte ria •Gliding •Non motile .

Bdellovibrionaceae ceae Nitrosomonadaceae CampylobactThiotrichaceae -eraceae Methylococcaceae Helicobacterac Pseudomonadaceae eae Vibrionaceae Nautiliaceae Enterobacteriaceae Pasteurallaceae . Neisseriaceae Desulfuromonadalceae FAMILY Burkhoderiaceae Ectothiorhodospira.PHYLUM (gram negative) Proteobacteria CLASS I CLASS II CLASS III CLASS IV CLASS V alpha ORDER beta ORDER gamma ORDER delta ORDER epsilon ORDER Purple Non sulfur bacteria (Rhodospirillales) Rickettesiales Purple Non sulfur Purple Sulfur bacteria (Chromatiales) bacteria Thiotrichales Neisseriales Methylococcales Burkhoderiales Pseudomonadales Nitrosomonadales Vibrionales Hydrogenophilales Enterobacteriales Pasteuralles FAMILY FAMILY Desulfovibrionales CampylobactDesulfobacterales -erales Desulfuromonadales Bdellovibrionales Myxococcales FAMILY FAMILY Rhodospirillaceae Rickettsiaceae Caulobacteraceae Hyphomicrobiaceae Rhizobiaceae Desulfovibrionaceae Desulfobacteralceae Chromatiaceae.

S cpds or H2 Anoxygenic. cause tumors (genes on plasmids) . photoorganoheterotrophs Anaerobic. Caulobacter Rhizobium. e. typhi: Typhus fever. motile S2. R. SO42. rickettsii: Rocky Mountain Spotted fever FAMILY Rhodospirillaceae Rickettsiaceae Caulobacteraceae Hyphomicrobiaceae Rhizobiaceae Hyphomicrobium.So SO42Rhodospirullum. R.PHYLUM (gram negative) Proteobacteria CLASS I CLASS II CLASS III CLASS IV CLASS V alpha Purple Non sulfur bacteria (Rhodospirillales) ORDER beta gamma delta epsilon Rickettesiales Rhizobiales Bacteriochlorophylls a or b Photosyn system in lamellar membranes continuous with PM. Azospillulum Rickettesia prowazekii: lack glycolytic pathways use glu and TCA interm succinate.donor: org cpd: red. Fix N2 to NH4. symbiotic with root nodules of Leguminosae Agrobacterium tumefaciens Not stimulate root nodules or fix N2.

PHYLUM Proteobacteria CLASS I CLASS II CLASS III (gram negative) CLASS IV CLASS V alpha beta gamma delta epsilon Some bacteria use H2.denitrificans (Nitrate to N2) Thiomicrospira (acid tolerance (pH 0.donor to Fe3+ & H2SO4) T. Nitrospira Spirillum Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough) FAMILY Neisseriaceae Burkhoderiaceae Nitrosomonadaceae Alcaligenaceae Sphaerotilus (grows in polluted sewage or industrial waters) and Leptothrix (deposits large amount of Fe and MnO in its sheath . ferrooxidans (Fe2+ as e. sulfur oxidizing). meningitidis Burkholderia cepacia (degrade 100 organic B. pseudomallai (bioterrorism) molecules) Purple Non sulfur bacteria Neisseriales Burkhoderiales Nitrosomonadales Hydrogenophilales Thiobacillus (colourless sulfur bacteria. volatile fatty acids ORDER Rhodocyclus Neisseria gonorrhoeae.5-6) Burkholderia and Ralstonia (FIX N2) Nitrifying bacteria Nitrosomonas (ammonia to nitrite).mallai and B. CH4. NH3. T. N.

to NO3) Nitrobacter winogradskyi (a-proteobacteria) Nitrosococcus mobilis (g-proteobacteria) Denitrification Pseudomonas Clostridium Paracoccus denitrificans.Nitrifying Bacteria NH4 oxidizing Bacteria (NH4 to NO2-) Nitrosomonas europaea (b-proteobacteria) Nitrosoccocus oceani (g-proteobacteria) Nitrospira briensis (b-proteobacteria) NO2.oxidizing Bacteria (NO2. Thiobacillis denitrificans .

P. metabolic regulation. P. Azotobacter (fix N2. (meningitis) Salmonella. Beggaiatoa. Methylococcus. V. cholerae.PHYLUM (gram negative) Proteobacteria CLASS I CLASS II CLASS III CLASS IV CLASS V alpha ORDER beta Largest subgroup gamma delta epsilon Thiospirillum Thiocapsa Chromatium Ectothiorhodospira Purple Sulfur bacteria (Chromatiales) Thiotrichales Methylococcales Pseudomonadales Vibrionales Enterobacteriales Pasteuralles FAMILY Strict anaerobes. Shigella. P.mulicida. P. H2 as e. Methanol and red one Carbon cpds as carbon and energy in microaerobic conditions. Ectothiorhodospiraceae Thiotrichaceae Methylococcaceae Pseudomonadaceae Vibrionaceae Enterobacteriaceae Pasteurallaceae (polar flagella) V.syringiae. P. rods Chromatiaceae. biofilms.donor Oxidizes H2S  S granules deposits internally. photolithotrophs H2 to H2S  S granules.haemolytica. Thiotrix Use CH4.flouresence. Leucothrix. E. nonsymbiotically Anaerobic .influenza . Important in mineralization. enteric bacteria. harveyi. Methylomonas Motile with flagella. Photobacterium (luciferase) Peritrichous flagella. Proteus Small. Serratia. Hexoses degraded by entner dourdoff than embeden meyerhoff. pathogens P. V. fischeri. H. functional TCA and oxidize completely to CO2 (sometimes use nitrate as terminal acceptor). Klebsiella.coli.aeruginosa. Yersinia. G-ve . parasitic.parahaemolyticus. Erwinia.putida. V. aerobic. non motile.

multiple fission. peptic ulcer disease. G-ve rods. Myxococcus xanthus Campylobact-erales Pathogenic and non pathogenic.acceptor . helical. produces urease and its hydrolysis Nautilia: ox H2 and use S as e. anaerobic.pylori:gastritis. Gliding motility. Desulfuromonas Sulfur cycle in envt. motile.PHYLUM (gram negative) Proteobacteria CLASS I CLASS II CLASS III CLASS IV CLASS V alpha ORDER beta gamma delta epsilon ORDER Desulfovibrionales Desulfobacterales Desulfuromonadales Bdellovibrionales Myxococcales Sulfate or S reducing bacteria. polar flagella Bdellovibrio Campylobact-eraceae Helicobacterac eae Nautiliaceae C. Found in soils in decaying matter. cause septicemia to enteritis FAMILY FAMILY Desulfovibrionaceae Desulfobacteralceae Desulfuromonadalceae Bdellovibrionaceae Non growing predatory and intracellular reproductive (similar to phages forms plaques).donor S SO4  H2S ATP (ETC) Desulfovibrio. microaerophillic. use S or SO4 as e.jejuni: abortions in cattle and enteritis diahorrea in humans H.

FA. PSI.pyruvate unable to ferment glucose) FAMILY Human pathogens. H2S.pneumoniae Ureaplasma urealyticum Clostridiaceae Acidominococcaceae Clostridium botulinum: ferment aa to form ATP (Stickland Rn)  NH3. Amines C. penicillin resistant but susceptible to lysis by osmotic shock and detergent treatment ATP by glycolysis or LA fermentation.tetani (tetanus). BChl g. C. grows in lactate.acetobutylicum (butanol) Desulfotomaculum SO4 S2. complete genomes sequenced . gen time 8-10min in human host) C. form endospores ORDER Bacillus (see next page) Stain gram negative Smallest genomes in prokaryotes Ancestors gram positive.perfringens (gas gangrene. None have complete TCA M. now lack CW and PG precursors. H2S (anaerobic) Helicobacterium and Heliophilum (photosyn.gentalium M. fermentative.PHYLUM Firmicutes CLASS I CLASS II Low G + C gram positive CLASS III Mollicutes (Mycoplasmas) Mycoplasmatales Entomoplasmatales Acholeplasmatales Aneroplasmatales ORDER Clostridia Clostridiales Obligate anaerobes. malate . pigments in PM) Vellionella (stain gram –ve.

faecalis (UTI and endocarditis) •Leuconostoc (wine production. cheese). breverages (beer. pneumoniae (a-hemolytic). grow in high sugar . high temperature habitats. motile. grow in acidic conditions (pH 4. butter. ab resistant) S. Staphylococcus epidemidis (skin diseases. wine. •Streptococcus thermophilus. S.PHYLUM Firmicutes Low G + C gram positive. E. pickles). non sporulating . no endospores. L. fruits. oral and others) Blood agar: α(green zone)and β-hemolysis (clear zone). <50% CLASS I CLASS II CLASS III Mollicutes (Mycoplasmas) ORDER Clostridia Bacillus Bacilliales Lactobacillales FAMILY Bacilliaceae Thermoactinomycetaceae Staphylococcaceae Listeriaceae Leuconostocaceae Enterococcaceae Streptococcaceae Aerobic. gramicidin) B. beer. cerus (food poisoning). vulgaris Caryophynon (cow dung).Streptococcus pyrogenes (non motile. Important in food and dairy industry to make fermented veg (sauerkraut. frmentation (cabbage. GI tract and UT Listeria monocytogenes (food poisoning) •Lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB). No cytochromes and energy by SLP not by ETC and OP. yogurt. anthracis (Anthrax). facultatively anaerobic (rods and cocci) Endospore forming. motile (peritrichous flagella) Bacillus subtilis (gene regulation. cell division) alternative σ factors in response to stress Antibiotic producing (bactracin. true endospores. juices) sour dough bread.thuringiensis.mutans (Dental caries) •Enterococcus grow in 6. sewage. bulgaricus (diacetyl and acetaldehyde). B. skin and nasal membranes. S.5-6.lactis (curdles milk). cucumbers. dairy.. B. L. meat. cheese. sausages. polymixin. L. B. 45-60oC. milk. pyrogenic. quorum sensing.5% NaCl agents of transfer of Ab resistantce (intestinal tracts.sphaericus (mosquito larve) Thermoactinomycetes: thermophillic.4)non pathogenic.plantarum (probiotic). cell differentiation. T. facultatively anaerobic •Lactobacillus. aureus (coagulase to clot blood plasma) causes food poisoning.

madurose. widely distributed. aa in tetrapeptide side chain position3 (present or absent) and PG sugar content (arabinose.avermitilis: geneome seq. Mycobacterium. Leuconostoc) Streptomyces: L. Nocardia) Other G+ve: lys substituted for DAP at position 3 and peptide subunits cross linked by interpeptide bridges l-carboxylic acids or Gly or both (Streptococcus. Clostridum. peptide (Bacillus. xylose) Mycobacterium tuberculosis. <50% CLASS Actinobacteria Filamentous hyphae and spores: substrate and aerial mycelium. gal.PHYLUM Actinobacteria High G + C gram positive. Staphylococcus. Streptomyces coelicolor. form exospores CW composition varies: PG composition and structure (DAP (meso or L isomer). Micrococcus. M.leprae. Coreynebacterium. S.L-DAP in position 3 and one Gly in interpeptide bridge . Soil inhabitants. produce secondary metabolites. Free living and pathogenic forms PG structure in gram positive bacteria G+ve and G-ve bacteria: meso-DAP in position 3 is linked to free NH2gp with free COOH of terminal D-ala of adj. Lactobacillus. degrade enormous number and variety of organic cpds and mineralization of organic matter.

PHYLUM Actinobacteria High G + C gram positive. <50% CLASS ORDER ORDER Actinobacteria ORDERS Actinomycetales SUB ORDER Bifidobacterales FAMILY Actinomycineae Micrococcineae Corynebacterineae Micromonosporineae Propionibacterineae Streptomycineae Streptosporangineae Frankineae Acidimicrobiales Coriobacteriales Sphaerobacterales Rubrobacterales Bifidobacteriaceae .

Lys in PG) Actinomycetales SUB ORDER Actinomycineae Micrococcineae Corynebacterineae Micromonosporineae Propionibacterineae Streptomycineae Streptosporangineae Frankineae Corynebacterium (meso-DAP. Swiss cheese. Mycobacterium (v. slow growing.. catalase positive. chitin. diptheriae (diptheria).coelicolor (largest prokaryotic genomes): 4 antibiotics High temperature habitats.tuberculosis. acid fast. M.iseraelii (human) Aerobic catlase-ve. S. sulfur) Micromonospora: Degrades chitin and cellulose. catalase +ve). A. agar and aromatic compounds) produce vast range of antibiotics. <50% CLASS Actinobacteria ORDER CW contains Lys not DAP or gly. volatile substance : GEOSMIN Major role in mineralization: degrade pectin. M. S. lignin. facultative or strict anaerobes. benzene. keratin. pesticides. use lactate and sugars to form propionic acid and acetic acid and CO2. PCB.lepre Nocardia (worldwide soil distribution and degradation of Hydrocarbons and waxes).PHYLUM Actinobacteria High G + C gram positive. latex. have madurose in CW Frankia (globular vesicles at ends. Arthrobacter(resp.C. aerobic. N. CO2 for optimal growth. gentamicin Propionibacterium:Facultatively anaerobic. detergents. high lipid content of mycolic acids. vesicles O2 sensitive and requires Mo and Co) Geodermatophilus (symbiotic association with non leguminous plants and fix N2. bovis. P.facultative. M.bovis (cattle). Sporichthya (lacks substrate mycelium) .griseus: streptomycin. A. produces antibiotics. asteroides (oppurtunistic pathogen in HIV-AIDS) and Rhodhococcus (degrade petroleum HC. non motile.acnes (body odour and acne) Aerial hypae (chains of spores) Streptomycetes (69-78% G+C).

bifidum: Pioneer colonizer of human intestinal tract FAMILY Bifidobacteriaceae .PHYLUM Actinobacteria High G + C gram positive. anaerobic actively ferments CHO to produce acetic acid and lactic acid no CO2 Found in mouth and intestinal tract. B. in seawage and insects. <50% CLASS Actinobacteria ORDER Bifidobacterales Gardnerella:human genital and urinary tract Bifidobacterium: Non motile. non sporulating.

rod. fragmentation •Aerobic. Branched chain HC attached to glycerol by ether diether or or tetraether linkages Many features similar to eukarya and some to bacteria. conc. Variation in G+C contents from 21% to 68%. or polysaccharide like chondroitin sulfate. translation or DNA metabolism and archaea and bacteria: metabolic pathways. triangular. Genes shared b/w Archaea and eukarya: proteins involved for transcription. D-amino acids. mesophiles. high pressure Cell wall and membranes: lack murmaic acid. Extreme Environments: Very high or very low temp. hyperthermophiles that can grow above 100oC. salts habitats or completely anoxic. facultative anaerobes or strictly anaerbic •Range from chemolithoautotrophs to organotrophs •Psychropiles. irregular or pleomorphic •Filaments or aggregates •Binary fission. pH. some (thermophillic and methanogens) have protein walls. pseudomurein (L-amino acids). circular. lobed.DOMAIN ARCHAEA •Can stain gram +ve or Gram-ve •Spherical. spiral. .

methanogens do not have TCA. Metabolism: •No enzyme phosphofructokinase and donot degrade by embeden Meyerhof pathway. •Autotrophy (methanogens and extreme thermophiles and CO2 fixation occurs .DOMAIN ARCHAEA •Circular chr. transcription factors (Eukarya) •Polycistronic. ribosomes are similar to bacteria but shape variable and differs from bacteria and eukarya. Some archaea have but have novel enzymes(ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase). TATA box. Halophile and extreme thermophile •Thermoplasma have TCA. no splicing (bacteria) •Translation is UNIQUE (TUC arm lacks T and contains pseudouridine or 1methylpesudouridine. Some methanogens can fix N2. some can use reversal of Embeden –Meyerhof pathway and some employ glycogen as reserve. •Can oxidize pyr to Acetyl CoA but lack pyr dehydrogenase complex and use enzyme oxidoreductase. single ORI and bidirectional rep but ORI is flanked by eukaryotic initiation proteins and may have mutiple origins •RNA poly has 10subunits. TBP.

extreme halophiles. Methanogens are dominant. CLASS Nanoarchaeum equitans CLASS Thermoprotei ORDER Thermoproteales Desulfurococcales Sulfolobales Methanobacteria Methanococci Methanomicrobia Halobacteria Thermoplamata Thermococci Archeoglobi Methanopyri . many are acidophiles and sulfur dependent Nanoarchaeota Euryarchaeota Methanogens. sulfate reducers and extreme thermophiles with Sulfur dependent metabolism.DOMAIN ARCHAEA PHYLUM PHYLUM Crenarchaeota Thermophiles or hyperthermophiles.

FAMILY Pyrodictiaceae Hyperthermophiles: Optimum growth rate: 105oC and autoclaving at 121oC fails to kill. CO or CO2 serve as carbon sources. O2 is terminal eacceptor.5-6. oxidize glucose. Many strict anaerobes. Hot springs and S rich habitats.5. Sugars and aa (Glu) as carbon and energy sources Thermoproteus : CW has glycoprotein. aa. CW has lipoprotein and CHO. optimum 70-80oC and pH 2-3 (thermoacidophiles). aerobic .donor (lithotrphs). Sulfur may be e-acceptor (anaerobic resp) e. Found in hot actd springs. Oxidize S to sulfuric acid. alcohols.donor .DOMAIN ARCHAEA PHYLUM Crenarchaeota Thermophiles or hyperthermophiles.acceptor. 7097oC and pH 2. strict anaerobe. CLASS Thermoprotei ORDER Thermoproteales Desulfurococcales Sulfolobales Sulfolobus : gram –ve. fe(III) may be used. many are acidophiles and sulfur dependent. Use Fe(III) as terminal e-acceptor and H2 or formate as e. organic acids with elemental S as e.

Methanopyrus (deepest and ancient branch) CH4 as clean burning fuel and a greenhouse gas Solute dependency on high conc of NaCl (1. optimum 88-100oC. Temp min 84oC and 98oC optimum. H2. grows b/w 47-65oC with optimum of 60oC. acetate to methane or methane and CO2. optimum 83oC . grow at 110oC. halophillic. All are methanogens or methanotrophs (use CH4 as carbon and energy) Hyperthermophillic. Extremely thermophillic S-metabolizers: Strictly anaerobic. aerobic. Picrophilus: has S-layer outside PM. sulfur reducing organisms CLASS PHYLUM Euryarchaeota Methanobacteria Methanococci Methanomicrobia Halobacteria Thermoplamata Thermococci Archeoglobi Methanopyri Methanogens: strict anaerobes. growth optimum 3-4M NaCl (1723%). formate. 55-59oC and pH 1-2. Have caroteinoids to protect againts sunlight Halobacterium salinarium (has bacteriorhodopsin. energy by converting CO2. also grow at saturation salt con (36%). thermophillic. Grows only below pH 3. rod shaped. methanol. optimum 88-100oC Archaeaglobus: Sulfate reducing: Strictly anaerobic. even grow at pH 0. 85(w/v)). can trap light without chlorophyll) Thermoacidiphiles: Thermoplasma (oxidize FeS to sulfuric acid. lacks CW and PM strengthened by diglycerol tetraethers and lipd containing polysacc and glycoproteins DNA stabilized by archaeal histones. S not used as acceptor. pseudomurein.5M NaCl.5 and optimum of pH7.DOMAIN ARCHAEA Methanogenic.

diploid zygote. commensalism or parasitic •Asexual.DOMAIN EUKARYA PROTISTA •Unicellular •Photosynthetic eukaryotes (algae) •Sapropyhtic or holotrophy. binary fission. chloroplast FUNGI. budding. lack chlorophyll. reproduce sexually and asexually •Form association with vascular roots (mycorrhizae) •Pathogenic and beneficial •Saprophytic (dead organic material) . association with other organisms: mutualism. cyst •One or more nuclei (macro and micronucleus) •Energy in mitochondria. mycelium •Digest insoluble organic matter and secrete exozymes and absorb solubilized nutrients •Spore bearing. hydrogenosome. Eumycota (true fungus) •Filamentous hypae.

pellicle. later lost plastid. Phytopthora infestans (Blight of potato). Seaweeds. H2 and acetyl CoA. Unikonta Amoebazoa Bikonta Archaeaplastida Phtosyn with chl a and b from ancestral BGA. CW made of cellulose Cyanophora Chloroplastida: Chlamydomonas. Plasmopara viticola (grape downy mildew). plasmalemma. Peronosporomycetes (oomycetes. kelps Heterokontophyta STRAMENOPILES . tenax Giardia intestinalis Leishmania (Leishmaniasis) Trypanosoma cruzi. phagocytic vacuoles. have PSI and II and undergo oxygenic photosyn •Ectoplasm. golden algae. T. Volvox RED ALGAE GREEN ALGAE LAND PLANTS KINGDOM Rhizaria Chromalveolata Alveolata 1 Apicomplexa 2 Dinoflagellates 3 Ciliphora Excavata Phylum:Euglenozoa Amoeba proteus Entamoeba histolytica Dictyostelium discoidium (cellualr slime mould). Chlorella. Vorticella. cAMP serve as molecular signalling Axopodia Radiolaria. caroteinoids) Trypanoplasma Paramecium.brucei (sleeping sickness) Euglena (chl a. T. cytostome. hydrogenosome (pyr is oxidized and decarboxylated to CO2. Stentor Noctiluca Gymnodium Gonyaulax Photosynthetic protists : diatoms (fucoxanthin). Foraminifera 1 2 3 Opisthokonta Animals Fungi GOLDEN ALGAE BROWN ALGAE OOMYCETES Plasmodium Eimera Toxoplasma (undercooked meat and cat feaces) Crptosporidia (AIDS) Trichomonas vaginalis. Peronospora viticola (blue mold of tobacco). brown algae. b. endoplasm. contractile vacuoles.PROTISTA •Photosynthetic protists are all aerobic.

few are parasites. blue green moulds.fumigatus. Fungus protects from stress and gives soil nutrients and plant provides CHO to fungus Considered to be protists. yellow colour used in margarine and butter Sac fungi. A. but show close relation to fungi. Others used in anesthetics. cellulose. humans. insects. peoxisomes. Red. Allomyces Live on decaying organic matter. Agaricus campestris. human and animal pathogen) Plant pathogens. Obligate parasites infect fish. collagen. degrade stable organic compounds like lignin. Amanita phalloides (phallodin and a-amanitin). anti cancer agent). shelf fungi. industrial alcohols.oryzae genome sequenced to understand immune system. HIV/AIDS: Enterocystozoon bieneusi: diahorrea and pneumonia Encephalolitozoon cuniculi: encephalitis and nephritis . A. toadstools. puff balls. Basidium (sexual reproduction) Polysporus squamous. Russula emetica (vomitting). mushrooms. powdery mildew. role in food and industrial microbiology and eukaryotic evolution) Club fungi. centrioles. brown.FUNGI. lack mito. Cryptococcus neoformans (cryptococcosis. Neurospora crassa Parasitic fungi: Claviceps purpurea (ergot poisoning and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Unicellular fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Ascus (reproductive structure). birth control agents. cause “Rusts” and “smuts” Mycorhizzal fungi: association with roots of herbaceous plants and tropical trees.nidulans. Aspergillus (A. Mucor (used with soyabeans to make curd). Eumycota (true fungus) Convergent and divergent evolution: many structurally and functionally similar structures evolved independently and some diverged to become dissimilar Chytridiomycota Zygomycota or zygomycetes Ascomycota or ascomycetes Basidiomycota or basidomycetes Uredinimycetes and Ustilaginomycetes Glomeromycota Microsporidia Zoospores with a posterior single whiplash flagellum. Edible morels. haploid nuclei Rhizopus stolonifer (bread mould) causes seedling blight: Burkholderia (b-proteobacteria) within fungus produces toxin (stops cell division.