Ethics in Islam

Ethics
• The basic concepts and fundamental principles of right human conduct. It includes study of universal values such as the essential equality of all men and women, human or natural rights, obedience to the law of land, concern for health and safety and, increasingly, also for the natural environment.

but also a very effective moral system.Ethics in Islam • Islam is a comprehensive way of life. which are to be observed in all circumstances.  To uphold these rights. . and morality is one of the cornerstones Islam. and whatever is harmful is morally bad.  Islam has established some universal fundamental rights for humanity as a whole.  Thus.  Morality is one of the fundamental sources of a nation’s strength. whatever leads to the welfare of the individual or the society and does not oppose any maxims of the religion is morally good in Islam. Islam has provided not only legal safeguards. just as immorality is one of the main causes of a nation’s decline.

Types of Knowledge Then the Prophet. "kitab fadl al-'ilm". 'Verily knowledge consists of these three: the firm sign. 1. All else is superfluous. declared.’” Al-Kulayni: al-Kafi. i. "bab sifat al-'ilm wa fadluh". . hadith no. the just duty and the established sunnah. may God's benedictions be upon him and his family.

Three Sciences • The firm sign • The just duty Practices • The established sunnah Ethics Beliefs .

nothing more weighty than good conduct is placed in the Balance of every man. .Why Study Ethics? • The Holy Prophet (SA) said: On the Day of Judgement. • Imam Baqir (AS) said: Indeed the most complete believers in faith are the ones best of conduct.

until it will become quite clear to them that it is the truth.Self-Recognition • The Qur’an says: We will show them Our signs in the Universe and in their own selves. 2 hadith 23. • The Hadith by the Prophet (SA) says: He who knows his self knows his Lord. Bihar al-Anwar: vol. Qur’an: 41: 53. .

• Angels do not enter a house that has a dog. . 1 hadith 744. • Lest a soul should say: O woe to me! for what I fell short of my duty to Allah. Al-Faqih: vol.Knowledge & Purification • Surely prayer keeps (one) away from indecency and evil. Qur’an: 29: 45. Qur’an: 39: 56.

• Both have Emotions.Humans and Animals • Both Eat & Drink. Qur’an: 25: 44. • Both have Five Senses. • Both have offspring. . • Both Move About with Free-will. they are straying farther off from the path. nay. Or do you think that most of them do hear or understand? They are nothing but as cattle.

Human Beings have the power to reason.Difference of Intellect • However. . and We have made them to excel by an appropriate excellence over most of those whom We have created. and We carry them in the land and the sea. while the animals do not. Qur’an: 17: 70. And surely We have honoured the children of Adam. and We have given them of the good things.

” • Imam ‘Ali (AS) said: “He who gets married has saved half of his faith.” In another tradition he says: ‘two thirds of his faith’.The Base of all Sins • Imam Hasan (AS) said: “The people are destroyed in three things: pride. greed and jealousy. .

Proportion of Human Desires Pride 11% Greed 11% Jealousy 11% Pride Greed Jealousy Lust Lust 67% .

Pride over one’s cast or race. • • • • • • .Pride • • Its root is Self-admiration. wealth. Pride over good actions. Pride over the creation. Pride over one’s appearance/ looks. Types of Pride: Pride over the Creator: Surely those who are too proud for My service shall soon enter hell abased. Pride over all other things. power etc. Pride over having Knowledge. Qur’an: 40: 60.

Salman (RA) was asked why don’t you wear new clothes? He replied: “I am a servant (‘abd).Solution to the Pride • It is due to ignorance. • To eat sitting on the floor. so one must educate himself. • To pray recommended prayers. • To dress humbly. • To give priority to our peers over ourselves. . one who asks Allah destroys his ego. the day I am freed (from this world) I’ll wear new dress. • To accept our mistake when it seems difficult. • Supplication.

” “Human beings become old. The Holy Prophet (SA) says: “Nothing fills the stomach of a greedy person. .Greed • Its root is the love for this world (dunya).” • The Greedy want to live longer.” Mahajjat al-Bayda’: vol. Imam ‘Ali (AS) says in Nahjul Balaghah: “Two seekers are never satisfied. the seeker of knowledge and the seeker of this world. but two things grow younger in them. even on himself and things he likes. 50. except dust. • He does not like to spend anything. 6 pp. greed and long hopes.

• Remembrance of death. • Firm belief in Allah’s mercy. • To think of the less fortunate than oneself. . • Generosity. so one must strengthen contentment.Solutions to Greed • It is due to lack of contentment. to start giving little amounts to the deserving and then building on it. • Disassociate with the worldly.

To envy a thing or quality others possess. 2. • Stages of Jealousy: 1. 3. . To speak against the one you envy. jealousy eats up faith (good deeds) like fire burns dry wood. To do something against the one envied.Jealousy • Its root is grudge and grudge is due to anger. • Imam Baqir (AS) says: Indeed.

• Practical solution: 1. To bear in mind that jealousy does not cause any harm to the envied. Do not backbite the envied. instead praise him. To keep in mind that it destroys both this world and the hereafter. . To bear in mind that it punishes no one but the one suffering from it. 2. 2.Solutions to Jealousy • Intellectual solutions: 1. Do not physically harm the envied. 3.

Four Human Faculties • • • • Intellectual Faculty Faculty of Desire Faculty of Anger Faculty of Imagination .

Intellectual Faculty • • Refinement of this power results in Wisdom. The two extreme ends of this are craftiness and stupidity. .

. • The two extreme ends of this are gluttony and immobility.Faculty of Desire • Refinement of this power results in chastity.

. • The two extreme ends of this are audaciousness and cowardice.Faculty of Anger • Refinement of this power results in courageousness.

. • The two extreme ends of this are tyranny and bearing tyranny.Faculty of Imagination • Refinement of this power results in justice.

Balance in Life • • • • Wisdom Courageousness Chastity Justice .