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 Decade of the reconstruction 1867-77: First time in history that blacks occupied elective offices.  Civil rights movement 1955-1965: The essence of this period is the purity and morality of the civil rights movement of non -violent protest.  Civil rights movement 1965-1979: Moving into other areas of leadership, politics, economics and government

 Racial segregation: By law. The number of African American voters dropped dramatically.  Disfranchisement: . and they no longer were able to elect representatives. public facilities and government services such as education were divided into separate "white" and "colored" domains Black voters were forced off the voting rolls.

and mass racial violence against blacks. organizational. Individual. Exploitation: Increased economic oppression of blacks. denial of economic opportunities and widespread of employment discrimination.  Violence: . police. Latinos and Asians.

14th and 15th amendments were constitutional legacies of the reconstruction and blacks were allowed to vote . The reconstruction program abolished the white governments in the Confederate states and gave power to the rulers of the five military districts of the Confederacy. At that time the 13th.


educational. Mission: ensure the political.E.B Du Bois . and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination.   W. African-American civil rights organization formed in 1909. social.

   Brown v. Board of Education 1954 • “Direct action” Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955–1956 • Marthin Luther King and the SCLC Greensboro sit-ins 1960 • Ocuppy stores and public places • SNNC and the “freedom rides” .

• King´s detention  Letter from Birminghan jail • “The Children Crusades” • Kennedy´s support  Washington March 1963 • For Civil Rights Law approval • King´s speech . protests in churches and marchs. Birmingham’s Campaign 1963-1964 • Buildings ocupations.

 Non-violent massive mobilizations  Claiming civil rights recognition  to vote  Next step “materializing it”  Civil rights  No longer a moral issue but a political and economic issue .

 The Congress of US passed the Voting Rights Act in August 1965.  It . was a landmark victory in the battle for African American equality.

• • Within the Black Power is founded in 1966 the Black Panther Party. housing and education. by themselves. to seize the gains they desired. including better jobs. It called on them to stop looking to the institutions of white America act for themselves. .• Black Power was a form of both self-definition and self-defense for African Americans.

education. 9. We want allblack We housing. housing. trial to service. when brought military be 6. We want of the black Nations-supervised plebiscite to be the black colonyourwhich only black our role in man ofstate. We wantdecentbread. of black people as l . We of this decadent defined by people.held throughout nature communities. want power tofromto clothing. 1. to their national day society. court by anblack their end to destiny of our jury And aspeermajor that exposes the a prisons and jails. tried land.ofCommunity. police brutalityfrom murder 7. justice want peace. to be for shelter of humanthe all black peoplefit exempt determine beings. 2.“THE TEN POINTS PROGRAM” 10. as American society. United States. We want freedomtrue all black menthe white the presentthat teachesan end to the robbery bycolonial subjects will be us allowed to participate for the purpose of determining the will county and black Community. We and education for our people political objective.true in a immediate our group or people and their Unitedwant full employment for our the Constitution education of black people. 3. in for history and held in federal. our 8. 4. We want freedom.

the Court has limited the scope of affirmative action programs.• Beginning in the 1960s. the term affirmative action was used to refer to policies and initiatives aimed at compensating for past discrimination on the basis of race. religion or national origin. while several US states prohibited racially based affirmative action. color. • . sex. Over the next decades.

. Voting right act of 1965 among others. disfranchisement. sit-ins and marches during the 50´s and 60´s   Great legislative achievements such as Civil rights Act of 1964. exploitation and violence By 70´s black leaders are gaining public offices and achieving more positions of influence From latest 60´s civil rights movements took other direction towards electoral politics and economics arena   acts of non-violent protest and civil disobedience such as boycotts. Historical background of racial segregation.

Malcolm X ..We are unique in America because we can choose whether to try to change this country by taking up the bullet or taking up the ballot ….


 Introduction Traditional view  Historical development Common points  Anti-feminist feminism  Conclusion FEMINISM .


• Not only legally recognized but socially.BEGINNING OF FRENCH REVOLUTION ABOLITION MOVEMENT 1789-1799 USA 1830 Great War 1914 2nd HALF 20th CENTURY Nancy Cott said that… The Feminist Movement became more Women’s hands were needed important: in order to help to carry on this situation. .

decision whether to reproduce.control over their bodies . Focused on “the problem that has no name”.  50% to 70% of women complained about their situations at work Demands: . .

Shirley Chisholm became the first black woman in Congress in 1968. • • .• By the early 1970s. the advances of the civil rights movement had combined with the rise of the feminist movement to create an African-American women's movement. The National Black Feminist Organization was founded in 1973.


Sadowski: traditional woman who was against abortion. . Elizabeth A.  Donna Carlson: considered Feminists as selfish individuals.

Elizabeth Bird… .

Historia.virginia. excerpts Donaldson. excerpts Selma to Montgomery marches excerpts Mujeres en el mundo. 2000) http://www. 2005) Brown v.1909-1969 (New York: Routledge. Changing of the Guard. Gilbert.             ados_Unidos ifestos/Panther_platform.html . David http://www. (Malabar.shtml http://www.history. Freedom’s Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle Against Racism in America.wikipedia.rediris.1954. FL: Krieger Publishing. Board of Education. retos y movimientos (Mary Nash alianza editorial) http://es. The Second Reconstruction: A History of the Modern Civil Rights Movement. excerpts Montgomery bus boycott 1955-56.iath. Gary A.