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# Signal Encoding

Techniques
Topic 8
Phase-Shift Keying (PSK)

Two-level PSK (BPSK)

Uses two phases to represent binary digits
( )
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
· t s
( ) t f A
c
π 2 cos
( ) π π + t f A
c
2 cos
1 binary
0 binary
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
( ) t f A
c
π 2 cos
( ) t f A
c
π 2 cos −
1 binary
0 binary
Phase-Shift Keying (PSK)
Phase-Shift Keying (PSK)

Differential PSK (DPSK)

Phase shift with reference to previous bit

Binary 0 – signal burst of same phase as previous signal
burst

Binary 1 – signal burst of opposite phase to previous
signal burst
Four-level PSK (QPSK)
More efficient use of bandwidth if each signal element represents
more than one bit

e.g. shifts of π/2 (90
o
)

each signal element represents two bits

split input data stream in two & modulate onto the phase of the carrier
( )
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
· t s

,
_

¸
¸
+
4
2 cos
π
π t f A
c
11

,
_

¸
¸
+
4
3
2 cos
π
π t f A
c

,
_

¸
¸

4
3
2 cos
π
π t f A
c

,
_

¸
¸

4
2 cos
π
π t f A
c
01
00
10
Four-level phase Shift Keying
(QPSK)

QAM is a combination of ASK and PSK

Two different signals sent simultaneously on the
same carrier frequency
( ) ( ) ( ) t f t d t f t d t s
c c
π π 2 sin 2 cos
2 1
+ ·
Reasons for Analog Modulation

Modulation of digital signals

When only analog transmission facilities are
available, digital to analog conversion required

Modulation of analog signals

A higher frequency may be needed for effective
transmission

Modulation permits frequency division
multiplexing
Basic Encoding Techniques

Analog data to analog signal

Amplitude modulation (AM)

Angle modulation

Frequency modulation (FM)

Phase modulation (PM)
Definition:

Spread spectrum is a form of wireless
communications in which the frequency of the
transmitted signal is deliberately varied

This results in a much greater bandwidth than the
signal would have if its frequency were not varied
Conventional wireless communication:

signal has a frequency, usually specified in MHz
and GHz, that does not change with time (except
for small, rapid fluctuations that occur as a result
of modulation)

When you listen to a signal at 103.1 MHz on an FM
stereo receiver, the signal stays at 103.1 MHz. It
does not go up to 105.1 MHz or down to 99.1
MHz

The digits on the radio's frequency dial stay the
same at all times

The frequency of a conventional wireless signal is
kept as constant as the state of the art will permit

The bandwidth can be kept within certain limits,
and so the signal can be easily located by
someone who wants to retrieve the information.
Problem with the conventional
Communication system
There are at least two problems with conventional wireless
communications that can occur under certain
circumstances:

First, a signal whose frequency is constant is
subject to catastrophic interference. This occurs
when another signal is transmitted on, or very
near, the frequency of the desired signal
Catastrophic interference can be accidental (as in
amateur-radio communications) or it can be
deliberate (as in wartime)
Problem with the conventional
Communication system

Second, a constant-frequency signal is easy to
intercept, and is therefore not well suited to
applications in which information must be kept
confidential between the source and destination
Spread spectrum was originally developed to improve the
reliability and security of radio transmissions (primarily for
military communications systems). Prior to World War II
Spread Spectrum approach to wireless communications is
employed today in Wi-Fi and some cellular networks to
obtain the following benefits:
Enhanced reliability:
Mitigates the impact of wireless interference on a
communication channel

Increased Bandwidth:
Exploits additional wireless spectrum to better utilize and
share bandwidth among multiple channels
Improved security:
limits the ability of attackers to intercept transmissions The
main idea behind spread spectrum is to separate a wireless
communication into a set of related transmissions, send the
messages over a wide range of radio frequencies, then
collect and re-combine signals on the receiving side.

Input is fed into a channel encoder

Produces analog signal with narrow bandwidth

Signal is further modulated using sequence of digits

pseudonoise, or pseudo-random number generator

Effect of modulation is to increase bandwidth of signal
to be transmitted

On receiving end, digit sequence is used to demodulate

Signal is fed into a channel decoder to recover data

What can be gained from apparent waste of
spectrum?

Immunity from various kinds of noise and
multipath distortion

Can be used for hiding and encrypting signals

Several users can independently use the same
higher bandwidth with very little interference
Spectrum (FHSS)

Signal is broadcast over apparently random series of

hopping from frequency to frequency at fixed interval

Transmitter operates in one channel at a time

Bits are transmitted using some encoding scheme

At each successive interval, a new carrier frequency is
selected

The sequence of channels used is dictated by a spreading
code

A receiver, hopping between frequencies in
synchronization with the transmitter

Pick up the message
Spectrum

Eavesdroppers hear only unintelligible blips (few bits)

Attempts to jam signal on one frequency succeed only at
knocking out a few bits
Spectrum
Spectrum System
(Transmitter)
(DSSS)

Each bit in original signal is represented by multiple
bits in the transmitted signal

frequency band

Spread is in direct proportion to number of bits used

band that is 10 times greater than a 1 bit spreading code

One technique combines digital information stream
with the spreading code bit stream using exclusive-OR

XOR ??
(DSSS)
DSSS Using BPSK
Code-Division Multiple Access
(CDMA)

In CDMA the users are spread across both
frequency and time in the same channel

Unique digital codes, rather than separate RF
frequencies or channels are used to differentiate
subscribers

The codes are shared by both the mobile stations
(cellular phone) and the base station, and are
called “pseudo random code sequences” or
“pseudo-noise code sequences”.

Code-Division Multiple Access
(CDMA)

It can provide secure communication in hostile
environment such that the transmitted signal is
not easily detected or recognized by unwanted
listeners

It can reject interference whether it is the
unintentional interference by another user
simultaneously attempting to transmit through the
channel, or the intentional interference by a
hostile transmitter attempting to jam the
transmission
Code-Division Multiple Access
(CDMA)
Another application is in multiple access
communication in which a number of independent
users can share a common channel without an
external synchronizing mechanism
CDMA Example

If k=6 and code is a sequence of 1s and -1s

For a ‘1’ bit, A sends code as chip pattern
• <c1, c2, c3, c4, c5, c6>

For a ‘0’ bit, A sends complement of code

<-c1, -c2, -c3, -c4, -c5, -c6>

Receiver knows sender’s code and performs electronic
decode function

<d1, d2, d3, d4, d5, d6> = received chip pattern

<c1, c2, c3, c4, c5, c6> = sender’s code
( ) 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 c d c d c d c d c d c d d S
u
× + × + × + × + × + × ·
CDMA Example

User A code = <1, –1, –1, 1, –1, 1>

To send a 1 bit = <1, –1, –1, 1, –1, 1>

To send a 0 bit = <–1, 1, 1, –1, 1, –1>

User B code = <1, 1, –1, – 1, 1, 1>

To send a 1 bit = <1, 1, –1, –1, 1, 1>

(A’s code) x (received chip pattern)

User A ‘1’ bit: 6 -> 1

User A ‘0’ bit: -6 -> 0

User B ‘1’ bit: 0 -> unwanted signal ignored

Phase-Shift Keying (PSK)
• Two-level PSK (BPSK)
– Uses two phases to represent binary digits
A cos ( 2πf t ) binary 1  c s (t ) =  A cos ( 2πf c t + π ) binary 0  A cos( 2πf c t )  = −  A cos( 2πf c t ) 

binary 1 binary 0

Phase-Shift Keying (PSK)

Phase-Shift Keying (PSK) • Differential PSK (DPSK) – Phase shift with reference to previous bit • Binary 0 – signal burst of same phase as previous signal burst • Binary 1 – signal burst of opposite phase to previous signal burst .

.

.

shifts of π/2 (90o)  each signal element represents two bits  split input data stream in two & modulate onto the phase of the carrier    s( t ) =     π  A cos 2πf c t +  4  3π   A cos 2πf c t +  4   3π   A cos 2πf c t −  4   π  A cos  2πf c t −  4  11 01 00 10 .g.Four-level PSK (QPSK) More efficient use of bandwidth if each signal element represents more than one bit  e.

Four-level phase Shift Keying (QPSK) .

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation • QAM is a combination of ASK and PSK – Two different signals sent simultaneously on the same carrier frequency s( t ) = d1 ( t ) cos 2πf c t + d 2 ( t ) sin 2πf c t .

digital to analog conversion required • Modulation of analog signals – A higher frequency may be needed for effective transmission – Modulation permits frequency division multiplexing .Reasons for Analog Modulation • Modulation of digital signals – When only analog transmission facilities are available.

Basic Encoding Techniques • Analog data to analog signal – Amplitude modulation (AM) – Angle modulation • Frequency modulation (FM) • Phase modulation (PM) .

What is Spread Spectrum?? Definition:  Spread spectrum is a form of wireless communications in which the frequency of the transmitted signal is deliberately varied This results in a much greater bandwidth than the signal would have if its frequency were not varied .

rapid fluctuations that occur as a result of modulation) When you listen to a signal at 103. the signal stays at 103. that does not change with time (except for small.1 MHz .What is Spread Spectrum?? Conventional wireless communication: signal has a frequency.1 MHz.1 MHz or down to 99. It does not go up to 105. usually specified in MHz and GHz.1 MHz on an FM stereo receiver.

.What is Spread Spectrum??  The digits on the radio's frequency dial stay the same at all times The frequency of a conventional wireless signal is kept as constant as the state of the art will permit The bandwidth can be kept within certain limits. and so the signal can be easily located by someone who wants to retrieve the information.

This occurs when another signal is transmitted on. or very near. the frequency of the desired signal Catastrophic interference can be accidental (as in amateur-radio communications) or it can be deliberate (as in wartime) Problem with the conventional Communication system . a signal whose frequency is constant is subject to catastrophic interference.There are at least two problems with conventional wireless communications that can occur under certain circumstances:  First.

and is therefore not well suited to applications in which information must be kept confidential between the source and destination Problem with the conventional Communication system . a constant-frequency signal is easy to intercept.Second.

Prior to World War II Spread Spectrum approach to wireless communications is employed today in Wi-Fi and some cellular networks to obtain the following benefits: Enhanced reliability: Mitigates the impact of wireless interference on a communication channel .Purpose of Spread Spectrum Spread spectrum was originally developed to improve the reliability and security of radio transmissions (primarily for military communications systems).

send the messages over a wide range of radio frequencies. .Purpose of Spread Spectrum Increased Bandwidth: Exploits additional wireless spectrum to better utilize and share bandwidth among multiple channels Improved security: limits the ability of attackers to intercept transmissions The main idea behind spread spectrum is to separate a wireless communication into a set of related transmissions. then collect and re-combine signals on the receiving side.

Spread Spectrum  Input is fed into a channel encoder • • Produces analog signal with narrow bandwidth Spreading code or spreading sequence Generated by pseudonoise. or pseudo-random number generator  Signal is further modulated using sequence of digits  Effect of modulation is to increase bandwidth of signal to be transmitted .

digit sequence is used to demodulate the spread spectrum signal • Signal is fed into a channel decoder to recover data .Spread Spectrum • On receiving end.

Spread Spectrum • What can be gained from apparent waste of spectrum? • Immunity from various kinds of noise and multipath distortion • Can be used for hiding and encrypting signals • Several users can independently use the same higher bandwidth with very little interference .

hopping between frequencies in synchronization with the transmitter • Pick up the message .Frequency Hoping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) • Signal is broadcast over apparently random series of radio frequencies (transmitter) • • • • hopping from frequency to frequency at fixed interval Transmitter operates in one channel at a time Bits are transmitted using some encoding scheme At each successive interval. a new carrier frequency is selected • The sequence of channels used is dictated by a spreading code • A receiver.

Frequency Hoping Spread Spectrum • Advantages – Eavesdroppers hear only unintelligible blips (few bits) – Attempts to jam signal on one frequency succeed only at knocking out a few bits .

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum System (Transmitter) .

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) • Each bit in original signal is represented by multiple bits in the transmitted signal • Spreading code spreads signal across a wider frequency band – Spread is in direct proportion to number of bits used – 10 bits spreading code spread the signal across a frequency band that is 10 times greater than a 1 bit spreading code • One technique combines digital information stream with the spreading code bit stream using exclusive-OR • XOR ?? .

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) .

DSSS Using BPSK .

. and are called “pseudo random code sequences” or “pseudo-noise code sequences”. rather than separate RF frequencies or channels are used to differentiate subscribers • The codes are shared by both the mobile stations (cellular phone) and the base station.Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) • In CDMA the users are spread across both frequency and time in the same channel • Unique digital codes.

Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) • It can provide secure communication in hostile environment such that the transmitted signal is not easily detected or recognized by unwanted listeners • It can reject interference whether it is the unintentional interference by another user simultaneously attempting to transmit through the channel. or the intentional interference by a hostile transmitter attempting to jam the transmission .

Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Another application is in multiple access communication in which a number of independent users can share a common channel without an external synchronizing mechanism .

d5.CDMA Example • If k=6 and code is a sequence of 1s and -1s – For a ‘1’ bit. A sends complement of code • <-c1. A sends code as chip pattern • <c1. -c6> • Receiver knows sender’s code and performs electronic decode function Su ( d ) = d1× c1 + d 2 × c 2 + d 3 × c3 + d 4 × c 4 + d 5 × c5 + d 6 × c6 • <d1. c3. d3. -c2. d6> = received chip pattern • <c1. -c3. c6> – For a ‘0’ bit. c4. c2. c4. c3. -c5. d4. -c4. d2. c2. c5. c6> = sender’s code . c5.

–1. 1. 1. 1. –1. 1. 1> – To send a 1 bit = <1. 1> – To send a 1 bit = <1. –1. 1> – To send a 0 bit = <–1. – 1. –1. –1. 1.CDMA Example • User A code = <1. –1. 1. 1. –1. –1> • User B code = <1. 1. 1. 1> • Receiver receiving with A’s code – (A’s code) x (received chip pattern) • User A ‘1’ bit: 6 -> 1 • User A ‘0’ bit: -6 -> 0 • User B ‘1’ bit: 0 -> unwanted signal ignored . –1. –1. –1.