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Guided by, Dr. K.G.Jolly H.O.D Mechanical Dept.

Presenting by, JITHIN.K M-Tech, Machine Design Roll No: 9

INTRODUCTION

Viscoelastic and fluid film dampers. Passive, semi-active and active dampers. Electromechanical dampers

• • • • Absence of all fatigue and tribology issues. Smaller sensitivity to the operating conditions. Wide possibility of tuning even during operation. Predictability of the behavior.

** Active magnetic bearings
**

– Shaft is completely supported by electromagnets

2

The self sensing system is based on the Luenberger observer. Our aim is to investigate self sensing approach in the case of AMD configuration. Active magnetic dampers – Rotor is supported by mechanical means and the electromagnetic actuators are used only to control the shaft vibrations. The combination of mechanical suspension with an electromagnetic actuator is advantageous. • Actuators are smaller compared to AMB configuration. • The system can be designed to be stable even in open loop. 3 . Parameters can be obtained in two different ways • Nominal ones and identified ones.

Fig. The back-electromotive force produced can be exploited to estimate mechanical variables from the measurement of electrical ones. 1 Model 4 .Modeling and Experimental Setup Nominal model A single degree of freedom mass spring oscillator actuated by two opposite electromagnets. Adoption of mechanical stiffness in parallel to electromagnets allows to compensate the -ve stiffness induced by electromagnets.

This leads to the so-called selfsensing configuration that consists in using the electromagnet either as an actuator and a sensor. Each electromagnet can be considered as a two-port element (electrical and mechanical). The energy stored in the electromagnet j is expressed as: (1) where the force can be obtained as (2) 5 . Voltage and current are used to estimate the airgap.

the Faraday and Kirchoff law in the electrical domain.The total flux and the coil current related by a nonlinear function where where are (3) is the radial airgap of electromagnet j (4) is the nominal airgap Owing to Newton’s law in mechanical domain. the dynamic equations of the system are (5) 6 .

where is the initial force generated by the electromagnet due to the current .R = coil resistance = voltage applied to electromagnet j = disturbance force applied to the mass The system dynamics is linearized around a working point corresponding to a bias voltage imposed to both electromagnets (6) where. 7 .

action and output matrices respectively. 8 . defined as (8) with the associated input and output state vectors and .The resulting linearized state space model is (7) where A.B and C are dynamic.

and the negative stiffness of one electromagnet respectively.The terms in the matrices derive from the linearization of the nonlinear functions defined in eqs. Assuming that ferromagnetic material of the actuator does not saturate. (10) 9 . has infinite magnetization and there is no magnetic leakage in the air gap. the back-electromotive force factor. (2) and (3) (9) where are the inductance. the current-force factor.

characteristic factor of electromagnets. the larger is stiffness k relative to | |.Where . As far as the linearization is concerned. The presence of a mechanical stiffness large enough to overcome the negative stiffness of the electromagnets makes the linearization point stable and compels the system to oscillate about it. 10 . the more negligible the nonlinear effects become. S = cross-sectional area of the magnetic circuit.

This rig consists in a horizontal arm hinged at one extremity with a pivot and actuated with a single axis magnetic bearing.Identified Model The system used is a test rig used for static characterization of radial magnetic bearings. 3 Test rig scheme 11 Fig. 2 Photo of the test rig . Six springs in parallel are placed to provide a stabilizing stiffness to the system. Fig.

Bently Proximitor eddy current sensor and current sensor. Two sets of parameters have been used to build the models. The electromechanical parameters and are equal. power amplifier. direct measurements. c. Based on expression ii. i. and impact response in opencircuit electromagnets conditions. and m are determined from physical dimensions. Have been identified experimentally under two assumptions.It consist of two electromagnets. • k. Damping may be introduced into the structure by simply feeding back the position sensor signal by means of a proportional-derivative controller. 12 • .

4. The proposed identification procedure is i. Identify such that the zero-pole pair due to the mechanical resonance corresponds to the experimental ones. Measure the resistance value R at low frequency 1 Hz in our case. ii. 13 . iii. Identify based on the high frequency slope of iv. Obtain the transfer function admittance in Fig.

The good correlation between the experimental and identified plots validates the proposed procedure. 14 .

The control is based on the Luenberger observer approach.e.displacement and velocity from the processing of the measurable states i. the current. It consists in estimating in real-time the unmeasured states . 15 .Controller unit To introduce active magnetic damping into the system.

which corroborates the control approach. In this case. the correspondence is quite good. and validates the whole procedure. The same transfer functions in closed-loop operation with the controller designed are compared in the case of identified parameters.Experimental results The open-loop voltage to displacement transfer function obtained from the model and experimental tests are compared. 16 .

17 .

18 . The controller based on the identified electromechanical parameters give better results than the nominal model. This controller does not destabilize the system. Good damping can be conveniently achieved for active magnetic dampers obtained with the simplified model.The damping performances are evaluated by analyzing the time response of the closed-loop system when an impulse excitation is applied to the system. as it is the case for full suspension self-sensing configurations.

19 .

The closed-loop system has good damping performances than open-loop system.CONCLUSION The study of an observer-based self-sensing active magnetic damper has been presented both in simulation and experimentally. The modeling approach and the identification procedure have been validated experimentally comparing the openloop and the closed-loop frequency response to the model. 20 . The self-sensing configuration provides good robustness performances even for relatively large parameter deviations.

V. Meas. 130. Montie and T.031010. Syst. Meas. p.Singh.. Silvagni.. Maslen. Control. “Transformer Eddy Current Dampers for the Vibration Control. Amati. Dyn. 2008. 21 . Dyn.References A. “Mechanical Vibrations”. 128.” ASME J. Syst.Tonoli..P. M. Iwasaki. E. H.” ASME J. “Robustness Limitations in Self-Sensing Magnetic Bearings. 2006. pp.. T. D. N. Control. 197–203.

Thank you… 22 .

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