MAGM 262

Directional Control Valves

Mr. Conrado

honed and heat treated. ground to size and polished. The inlet and outlet ports are drilled and threaded. After assembly the spool is the only moving part. The valve spools are heat treated. The valve body is drilled. The body and spool are then mated in assembly.Directional Control Valves • • • • • Used to direct the supply of oil to the actuator in a hydraulic system. some chrome plated. .

. The grooves allow oil to flow around the spool and through the valve body. When a “closed center” valve is in the normal position the oil is blocked by the valves pool. When an “open center” valve is in the normal position.Valve Spool • • • • • • The spool consists of lands and grooves. The position of the spool when not activated is called the “normal” position. the supply of oil flows through the valve and back to the tank. The lands block oil flow through the valve body.

The oil also flows to the load check valve. The passage behind the load check is filled with blocked oil. The spool also blocks the oil in the line to the rod end and the head end of the cylinder.Open Center – Hold Position • • In the hold position the pump oil flows into the valve body. The blocked oil and the load check valve spring keep the load check valve closed. around the spool and return to the tank. • .

.Open Center – Raise Position • • When the spool is moved to the raise position. The blocked pump oil flows causes an increase in oil pressure. The oil is also open to the load check valve. The load check valve prevents the oil in the head end of the cylinder from flowing into the pump passage. The spool in addition connects the cylinder head end to the oil behind the load check valve and the rod end to the tank return. the valve spool blocks the oil flow to the tank.

The pump oil then flows past the load check. passed the spool and to the head end of the cylinder. • . The oil in the rod end of the cylinder flows past the spool and to the tank.Open Center – Raise Position • This increase in pump oil pressure overcomes the pressure behind the load check valve and unseats it.

.ISO Symbols • The basic valve symbol consists of one or more envelopes. The number of envelopes used represents the number of positions that the valve can be shifted.

For example you can have a valve that has two positions and but controls three cylinders and such three ports. But most commonly valves have one to three positions and ports from two to six. Valves can have as many position and ports as needed. Don’t confuse this with a two-position valve. • • .Valve Ports • Here we show the valve ports for attaching the working lines. A valve with two ports is commonly referred to as a two-way valve.

Flow Path • The lines and arrows inside the envelopes are used to represent the flow paths and directions between ports. .

When in the hold position the center spool blocks all oil flow. The valve on the top is a closed center valve. • • • . the valve is placed in the hold position. The bottom valve is an open center valve. In hold the spool connects all ports to the tank.Three Position Valve • Here we show thee ISO symbols of the three position valve. When the valve is not doing work. In the three position valve. the center position is the neutral or hold position. When in the hold position ports A and B are blocked but the valve connects the pump (P) to the Tank (T). The middle valve is a tandem center valve.

The oil in the cylinder is blocked at the valve spool.Three Position. Manual Control Valve • • This valve is now in the hold position. Open Center. Six Way. . The pump oil flows around the spool to the tank.

ISO Valve Actuator Symbols .

• • • .Check Valve • The purpose of the check valve is to readily permit oil flow in one direction but prevent oil flow in the opposite direction. but some are free floating. For the valve on the left. when the pump oil overcomes the spring tension the seat opens and allows oil to flow. The check valve is often referred as a one-way check valve. Most consist of a spring and a tapered seat. The valve on the right. when the pressure on the implement side becomes less than the pump side the seat will open allowing oil flow.

Check Valve ISO Symbols .