Regenerative Braking in three phase locomotives

By Ajay Israni IRSEE(P) 2006

Brake: Application of negative tractive effort to the train and the purpose is to reduce the speed of the train or stop the train.

Types of Braking System

Friction based - Vaccum Brake - Air Brake Electrical based (momentum) - Dynamic Brake - Rheostatic - Regenerative

Regeneration of Power in 3 Phase Induction Motor  Speed torque characteristics of conventional fixed frequency fixed voltage squirrel cage induction motor is given by T = k (v/f)2 * slip Where v = terminal voltage and f = supply frequency Regeneration takes place only when rotor is driven mechanically at super synchronous speed .

3 Phase Induction motor characteristics .

. the power flow must be reversible. This is achieved by using a voltage source inverter (VSI) which is fed from the 25kV catenary power through a converter and DC link capacitor. To enable movement in either direction and regenerative braking. this is achieved through four quadrant controller. In a VSI the voltage as well frequency are varied on demand.PWM Control of Induction Motor  Control System is required to give a variable voltage and variable frequency power supply to the traction motor from a fixed catenary voltage.

Regenerative Braking In Loco .


Power Circuit Diagram .


Traction Converter Line Converter DC Link Drive Converter    .

both frequency and amplitude of three phase converter output voltage are continuously changed according to the demand from the driver’s cab. . This allows continuous adjustment of the driving or braking torque of the traction motor. which means that the driving speed changes smoothly. The traction converter allows the train not only to drive but also to brake electrically..Traction Converter contd. To control the tractive or braking effort and hence the speed of the vehicle.

Line converter The line converter maintains the DC link voltage at a value dependent on power. Line converter consists of two pulse controlled single phase full bridge circuits which are connected in parallel on the DC link side. they are connected to the secondary winding terminals of the main transformers . direction of energy flow and line voltage. On the AC side.

Firstly it smoothens the direct current that flow through.Intermediate DC link It performs two main tasks. Secondly it also performs storage function. Conversely it is also able to convert the three phase current generated by the drive motors into direct current for braking . Drive Converter The Drive Converter converts the DC from Intermediate DC link into three phase current for the drive motor (motoring).

there are two essential conditions – 1 2 The generated voltage must be greater than the overhead voltage The overhead system must be receptive to the regenerative power .For regenerative braking to take place.

In case of three phase induction Motor. no additional apparatus or equipment are required for regenerative braking.r. the frequency of the motor can be varied to create the required disparity w. since the induction motor operate as generator when driven at speed exceeding the synchronous speed.t. . the switchover from motor action to generator action is automatic on a down grade with the tendency of the train to speed up. the supply frequency which would permit braking even on level section and almost upto zero speed. In VVVF system.

. regenerative braking is achieved. operating point shifts from P1 to P2 on regenerating portion with negative torque. Thus. and for the same motor speed N1. then Sync. we reduce the frequency from f1 to f2 .Speed characteristics in regeneration.Regenerative Braking Curve 3 Curve 2 Curve 1 f3 f2 P3 f1 P1 T1 Positive torque N2 N1 P2 P4 Negative torque If at a speed N1. which is possible right upto near-zero speeds. Torque . Speed reduces.

All motors are connected in parallel    . This ensures that the AC current in the transformer primary winding is almost sinusoidal The motor converter consists of a pulse controlled three phase bridge circuit which is connected to the DC link. on the AC it is connected to three motor stator windings. The full bridge circuit GTOs are switched at frequency much greater than the line frequency.Working of Traction Converter (motoring/regeneration) The line converter is a self commutating four quadrant converter consisting of full bridge GTO circuit. the switching signals for the four pairs of arm are shifted by 90° in relation to one another.

During braking..  Working of Traction Converter (motoring/regeneration) contd. the fundamental frequency of the motor terminal is higher than the frequency corresponding to the motor speed (positive slip) resulting in a positive motor torque. In motoring mode (driving mode). the fundamental frequency of the motor terminal voltage will be lowered below the frequency corresponding to the motor speed. resulting in a negative slip and therefore producing braking torque .

Vector Diagram .

WAP5 and WAP7. Only three loco sheds has been selected to maintain these three locomotives on Indian Railway i. Ajni and Ghaziabad   . The converter unit in these locomotives has the task of converting power between the transformer and the asynchronous motor in such a way that optimum tractive or braking effort can be generated at any speed.e.Indian Railway  The population of three phase locomotive on Indian Railway is approx 145 comprising of WAG9. Gomoh.

4 12.Indian Railway contd.2 8.. ELS Gomoh is having holding of WAG-9 60 locos and WAP-7 8 locos. Data regarding energy consumed and energy regenerated during period of Feb to May ’09 are Sr No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Loco No 31400 31402 31403 31404 31405 31407 Energy Consumed KWH/day 11795 9138 3348 10262 10650 10026 Energy Regenerated KWH/day 1319 747 358 1125 1350 1206 % Saving 11.3 .2 10.6 11 12.7 12 7 8 9 10 31411 31412 31413 31415 10376 13594 10968 12089 1082 1959 1388 1728 10.5 14.2 14.

2 9.8 11.Sr No 11 12 13 14 15 16 Loco No 31416 31417 31418 31419 31420 31421 Energy Consumed KWH/day 12737 10897 9423 13146 11229 7420 Energy Regenerated KWH/day 1257 942 1014 1486 1259 679 % Saving 9.8 10.4 7.0 10.9 8.2 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 31422 31423 31424 31049 30201 30202 30205 30206 30226 13890 12886 13633 15356 20041 15838 9490 10367 6522 1555 1875 1415 1120 3018 2232 1642 1827 1021 11.6 15.3 11.1 17.1 14.7 .4 13.3 15.3 17.

Due to frequent acceleration and de-acceleration requirement.DMRC  The modern design of metro rolling stock incorporating three phase induction motor and converter-inverter enables recovery of a major portion of consumed electricity by way of using regenerative braking With smaller inter-station distances. Traction accounts for about 60-80% of total energy consumption in a metro system  . metro operation is essentially of start/stop. the energy demand is very high.Case Study .

Case Study – DMRC contd. 1450V 3 phase squirrel cage induction motors. Traction motors in DMRC are VVVF controlled 220kW.  DMRC rolling stock uses 25kV AC Traction with AC propulsion system capable of regeneration on its network..   A typical rake used by DMRC consists of two units – each comprising a driving trailer and motor car .

Saving in wheel wear = approx. 1.Case Study – DMRC contd.3 lac/annum/rake Saving in brake block consumption = 53000 Rs/annum/rake Reduced down time and reduced manpower for maintenance are also significant 2 3 4 . Benefits to DMRC – 1 Saving achieved through regenerative braking is an average of about 5-20% on different lines..

3. .Advantages of regenerative braking Energy saving Reduced wear of friction brake equipment Less wear of wheel 1. 2.

2. there exists limited potential to raise the share of recovered braking energy . The regenerative braking effect rapidly reduces at lower speeds. high share of braking power comes from mechanical brakes and only small share of regenerative brake in locomotive itself. Due to high average weight of freight trains and the fact that only locomotive axles are powered. Therefore the friction brake is still required in order to bring the vehicle to complete halt.Limitations of regenerative braking 1.

No regenerative braking effect can occurs if another electrical component on the same supply system is not currently drawing power and if the battery and capacitors are already charged. The main disadvantage of regenerative braking as compared to rheostatic braking is the need to closely match the generated current with the supply characteristics 4. 3. The amount of electrical energy capable of dissipation is limited by either the capacity of the supply system to absorb this energy or on the state of charge of capacitors or battery. .Limitations of regenerative braking cond..

there is wide scope of energy conservation . it can be concluded that by optimum use of regenerative braking techniques by loco drivers. ii.Conclusions 1 Regenerative braking depends upon following factors: i. it was found that it varies from 5 – 20% After this study. Route Gradient Traffic Density Driven Axles 2 3 From the data regarding percentage saving in energy. iii. iv.

5.Conclusions contd. Auditing monthly energy conservation figures of regeneration Award for drivers for conserving maximum energy . 4..