Osmoregulation and Excretion

Ainsley Lockhart and Emily Allyn

Osmoregulation: The Basics
• Osmoconformers – Isoosmotic with surroundings • Osmoregulators- Control internal environment independently from environment • Stenohaline – Animals that cannot tolerate large changes in external osmolarity • Euryhaline – Animals that can survive large fluctuation in external osmolarity.

Osmotic Challenges: A Survey QuickTime™ and a decompressor are neede d to see this picture. .

Osmoregulation: Energy Cost and Other Mechanisms • Energy is required for active transport and diffusion of solutes and water • Transport epithelia is responsible for filtration and reabsorption .

Nitrogenous Waste • • • • Ammonia Urea Uric acid Evolution of each mode .

Excretion: The Basics • How excretory systems maintain homeostasis. • Bodily Fluids -> Filtrate -> Urine .

Evolution of Excretory Systems: Protonephridia • Organisms – Flatworms(acoelomates) – Rotifers – Some annelids – Mollusc larvae – Lancelets • Functions – Metabolic waste excretion – Osmoregulation – Disposal of nitrogenous waste • Mechanisms – Tubule network – Flame bulbs .

Evolution of Excretory Systems: Metanephridia • Organisms – Most annelids • Functions – Metabolic waste excretion – Osmoregulation • Mechanisms – Ciliated funnel – Collecting tubule – Transport epithelium .

Evolution of Excretory Systems: Malpighian Tubules • Organisms – Insects and other terrestrial arthropods • Functions – Nitrogenous waste disposal – Osmoregulation • Mechanism – transport epithelium .

Evolution of Excrtory Systems: Kidneys • Organisms – Vertebrates and some other chordates • Functions – Osmoregulation – Metabolic waste excretion • Mechanism: – Highly organized tubules – Ducts .

nephron • Renal veins and arteries supply blood • Urine: Kidneys -> Ureter -> Bladder -> Urethra . renal medulla.Structure Of The Mammalian Excretory System • Kidneys: renal cortex.

Adaptations and Evolution of the Mammalian Kidney • Gram-negative bacteria • Hagfish and segmented kidneys .

Pathway of Filtrate .

From Blood Filtrate to Urine • proximal tubule • descending and ascending limb of loop of Henle • distal tube • collecting duct .

Solute Gradients .

Kidney Adaptations: Mammals • The juxtamedullary nephron functions for water conservation • Long loops of Henle .

Kidney Adaptations: Birds and other Reptiles • Birds – Juxtamedullary nephrons – Shorter loops of Henle – Uric acid • Reptiles – Cortical nephrons – Transport epithelium in cloacas – Uric acid. .

Kidney Adaptations: Freshwater Fish and Amphibians • Freshwater Fish – Many nephrons – Transport epithelium for salt retention • Amphibians – Water vs. land adaptations .

proximal tubules of nephrons • Monovalent ions flushed out with gills .Kidney Adapations: Marine Bony Fish • Small nephrons with no distal tube • Small or no glomeruli • Divalent ions flushed out with kidneys.

Contribution of Hormones to the Mammalian Excretory System • antidiuretic hormones (ADH) • hypothalamus and pituitary( osmoregulator cells in hypothalamus detects rising osmolarity of blood and produces the hormone. Hormone is stored in the pituitary gland) • distal tubes and collection ducts (aquaphorons) (the ADH binds to aquaphorons in kidney to change the water pemeability of transport epithelial) .

Renin-angiotensinaldosterone system (RAAS) • juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA). angiotensin II . afferent arteriol ( the afferent arteriol moitors blood volume/ artetiol tension and instructs the JGA which is close by to make angiotensin II) • adrenal gland (makes aldosterone) • aldosterone.

Homeostatic Regulation of the Kidney • The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) • Antidiuretic hormones (ADH) • Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) .

Disorders of the Kidney • Diabetes insipidus • Affects of alcohol • Gout .

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