The reign of Sultan Mahmud Shah as king is also another factor that caused the fall of Malacca.The fall of Malacca . Tun Putih was old. The factors:  Weak ruling government  The death of bendahara Tun Perak. weak and barely able to carry out his duties. there was no successor capable of running the state of Malacca. . Sultan Mahmud paid no need to the administration of the government. Tun Perak’s successor. after his death however.

who was a Tamil-Islam. which had mellowed to some point due to the wise and fair reign of Tun Perak. Hostility among races  When Tun Mutahir assumed the position of Bendahara after the demise of Tun Putih. and the racial tensions. favoured his relatives and reserved important administration positions in the government for them.  Consequently. flared up again . there was much dissatisfaction among the Malay Muslims and Tamil Muslims. Tun Mutahir.

A Chinese merchant. Some even backed the Portuguese during the attack on Malacca. for instance. 5 huge barges to the Portuguese while a Tamil merchant known as Ninachatu supplied information on Malacca’s defense system. Disloyalty  Many of the foreign merchants who came to Malacca to trade did not believe loyalty to the government of Malacca. provided on loan. .

The Malacca army. on the other hand. . spears and lances. used medieval weapons like the kris. They were also led by Alfonso d’Albuquerque. The strength of the Portuguese army  Portuguese soldiers were better equipped than their Malacca counterparts and possessed advanced weapons. like guns and cannons. swords. who was capable and experienced in the battlefield.

who was a key player in much of the Portuguese’ expansion efforts in Asia. . After 10 days under siege. in addition to searching for "Guinea gold" and expanding their tiny kingdom to become one of the most powerful nations in the world. Malacca fell into the hands of the Portuguese on 24th August 1511. was to spread the Christian Gospel and reduce the influence of Islam in the East.Colonialism of Malay  Portugese  Their purpose.  The man who succeeded in the capture of Malacca was none other than the famed Alfonso de Albuquerque.

which enabled them to monopolize the trading of tin and weaken the power of the local government and Malacca once again proved useful to control the Malay states abundant with tin. Dutch  In 1580. Kedah. .  The Dutch also signed treaties with the Sultan of Perak. Before this. ending in January 1641.  The Dutch attack on Malacca began in August 1640 and lasted for over five months. the Dutch had been obtaining spices from Lisbon and when the closure ensued. Ujung Salang and Bangeri. the Dutch were motivated to go to the East to obtain spices on their own. Philip II of Spain conquered Portugal and subsequently closed the port of Lisbon to Dutch and English sailors in 1594.

. It was agreed upon ib the treaty that Singapore.  In 1873. the Malay states and India would come under British rule. This was a historical event which laid the foundation for the establishment of the Resident System in most of the other states in Malaya. in which the Residential System was first established in Perak. the signing of the Pangkor Engagement in 1874. The British  The British and Dutch signed the London Treaty on 17th March 1824 to solve the conflicts between themselves in the East and to protect their own interests. while East India and the regions south of Singapore belonged to the Dutch.

Kelantan and Terengganu. became known as the nonfederated Malay states and accorded British protection as agreed upon in the 1909 AngloThai Treaty between Britain and Thailand. these four states were combined into one administration unit and acknowledged as the Federated Malay States. Johor.Selangor. which were once regarded as vassal territories of Thailand. Perak.  In 1896. . Pahang and Negeri Sembilan. Perlis. together with the other remaining states like Kedah.

for an attack in Singapore by building powerful defenses to ward off threats from the sea. Their attack first began in the Kota Bahru located north of Malaya. and Singgora and Patani. the Japanese stunned their enemies by advancing from the north.000 men captured the whole of Malaya and Singapore from the hands of the British within ten weeks through their ingenuity and meticulous planning. . Japanese  The Japanese first set foot in Malaya on 8th December 1941 and with a force of some 150. and prepared instead.  Knowing very well that the British had neglected the north. located in the southern part of Thailand.

the British surrendered to the Japanese. The final blow landed on the British when Singapore was captured on 15th February 1942. the British suffered severe losses when their only two battleships in the area. the Prince of Wales and the Repulse. In its humiliating defeat.  As thousands of bicycles ridden by Japanese soldiers advanced to the southern tip of the Peninsula. Singapore was also bombed and the coast of Kelantan invaded. 80. Simultaneously. on the same day. Kuala Lumpur. were bombed by the Japanese and consequently sunk on 10th December in the east coast of Malaya. . Penang fell into Japanese’ hands one week later.000 troops and all. on 7th January 1942 followed by Johor at the end of January.