In language, the ignorant have prescribed laws to the learned.

(Richard, 1830)

• • • •

Syntax? Morpheme Categories Word Categories Phrase Categories

• Phrase Marker • Grammatical Functions • Head, Complements & Modifiers

Syntax is:

A sentence is a sound in itself on which sounds called words may be strung.

• The study of sentence structure

Syntax aims To answer the following questions: • What are the parts that make up a sentence? • What are the properties of these parts? • How are these parts related to one another? • How do these parts combine with one another to form a sentence? (Rules?) .

Syntactic Hierarchy .

From Words to Phrases .

Lexical Categories Why lexical Categories? • Reason 1: Different words. • Reason 2: A sentence can contain an infinite number of words. . same word categories.

Determining the Lexical Categories Three Criteria o Semantic o Morphological o Syntactic .

place or thing.Semantic Criteria Meaning-based Criteria • Noun refers to a person. • Verb refers to an action. time or frequency of an action. • Adverb refers to the manner. . • Adjective refers to a quality. location.

etc. etc. pain. • assassination. • remain. happiness.Semantic Criteria: Inadequate • sincerity. construction. etc. appear. exist. .

And the mome raths outgrabe. the claws that catch! Beware the Jubjub bird.Jabberwocky by Lewis Carrol ‘Twas brillig. and shun The frumious bandersnatch! . my son! The jaws that bite. and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe. Beware the Jabberwock. All mimsy were the borogoves.

Morphological Criteria • Inflectional Properties -Different forms of the same word cat + -s cats • Derivational Properties – How words are derived from other words sad + -ness sadness .

love and pain do not have a plural form. though reliable in many cases. • Some adjectives such as absent and circular do not have comparative and superlative forms.Morphological Criteria: Not Sufficient • Morphological criterion. • Many nouns such as information. . is not a sufficient condition for determining lexical categories.

He walked right ____ the wall. 5.g. They have no ____. e. 2.Syntactic Criteria • Different categories have different distributions. 1. Only a restricted set of lexical categories can occur in each position. . They can ____. They read the ____ book. He treats patient very____. 4. 3.

Syntax of Major Word Classes .

Noun Morphological Properties • It can take a plural -s morpheme. -er. -action. • It can be modified by a possessive (apostrophe: ’s) • It contains morphemes like the following: -ity. deer. mice. -ment. . -ion. -hood. -ness. -ance. Exceptions: children. etc.

the. these. three • Preceded by an ADJECTIVE • Followed by a PREPOSITION • Preceded by a PREPOSITION . two. that. this. an. those and numerals like: one.Noun Syntactic Properties • Preceded by determiners like: a.

e. running .g. writes • takes a progressive tense morpheme -ing.g.Verb Morphological Properties • takes a past tense -ed. • third-person singular agreement -s. etc. left. exceptions: went. e.

Verb Syntactic Properties • preceded by AUXILIARIES. • preceded by MODAL VERBS. • preceded by an ADVERB. • preceded by negation words like not and never. • can be followed by a NOUN. .

e. freakish. -ly. fibrous. friendly • able to form comparatives and superlatives with -er and -est.g. . angrier.g. -ish and.Adjective Morphological Properties • has morphemes like -ous. sometimes. angriest. e. angry. -y.

these. . this. those and numerals and before NOUNS. • can occur after determiners like the. a. • modifies a NOUN • can follow VERBS.Adjective Syntactic Properties • can be preceded by ADVERBS.

very. angrily. never.g. also. fast. etc. . too. often. quickly. swiftly.Adverb Morphological Properties • often followed by the morpheme -ly e. so. now. Exceptions: abroad. well.

swiftly angry. e.g. e. walks quickly • modifies an ADJECTIVE.g.Adverb Syntactic Properties • modifies a VERB. very angrily .g. • modifies another ADVERB. e.

• can precede another PREPOSITION.Preposition Morphological Properties • Invariable. takes no affixes Syntactic Properties • occurs before a noun phrase • never occurs before an ADVERB or an ADJECTIVE by themselves. .

e. demonstratives. Morphological Properties • invariable i. quantifiers.Determiners • Determiners refer to articles. take no affixes Syntactic properties • occur before adjectives and nouns . possessives.

mood.Auxiliaries Morphological Properties • can be inflected for tense. voice. aspect Syntactic Properties • occur before the main verb or before an adverb modifying the main verb • can occur before other auxiliary verbs • can undergo inversion in questions .

don’t take affixes Syntactic Properties Typically connect words of the same category .Conjunctions Morphological Properties Invariable.

for . Syntactic Properties • create embedded sentences e. whether.that. if. don’t take affixes.g.Complementizers Morphological Properties • invariable. I wonder if he did so. .

The mother of the boy and the girl is arriving soon. the agreement and ambiguity facts in examples like the following: a. b.g. S Det N V Det N • This grammar misses a great deal of properties that we can observe.. .Grammar with Lexical Categories A man kicked the ball. The mother of the boy and the girl are arriving soon. e.

• The grouping of words into larger units called constituents provides the first step in understanding the agreement facts. . b. [The mother of the boy] and [the girl] are arriving.Constituency • Why two different agreement patterns? • Two different possibilities for grouping the words a. [The mother of [the boy and the girl]] is arriving.

Phrasal Categories Evidence for the existence of phrase units • Cleft Construction • Constituent Questions • Pronoun Substitution • Coordination .

Phrase Structure Rules (PS Rules) Phrases are projected from lexical categories. o NP: Noun Phrase o VP: Verb Phrase o Adj P: Adjective Phrase o Adv P: Adverb Phrase o PP: Preposition Phrase .

you. etc. the students. I. . Options: • • • • • PS Rule NP (Det) (A) N (PP/S) Ahmad. the students who cam from UMT.NP: Noun Phrase • head is noun. students. the tall students the students from UMT. __ [liked ice cream].

VP: Verb Phrase • head is verb. The student __. VP PS Rule V (NP) (PP/S) . sang. thought Izza is honest. Options: • • • • ran. lifted heavy chair. walked the dog through the park. etc.

. sad. proud of you.Adj P: Adjective Phrase • head is adjective. proud to be his students. etc. proud that he passed the exam. He feels__. Options: • • • • PS Rule Adj P Adj (PP/ VP/S) happy.

Adv P: Adverb Phrase • head is adverb. very well. He behaved __. carefully • very politely. Adv P PS Rule (AdvP) Adv . Options: • well. etc.

etc. • into the box. Options: • up the tree.PP: Preposition Phrase • head is preposition. The squirrel ran right__. PS Rule PP P NP .

.Grammar with Phrases • PS rules can generate infinite number of grammatical sentences. and thus enable us to represent the structural ambiguities of sentences. – Recursive application of PS rules • PS rules help us to identify hierarchical structures.