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Contents
1. The Communications 2. 6. Modulation Process

3.
4.

5.

Process Primary Communication Resources Sources of Information Communication Networks Communication Channels

7. Analog and Digital

Types of Communication 8. Shannon’s Information Capacity Theorem 9. A Digital Communication Problem 10. Historical Notes

Communications
1. Daily lives 6. Communications

2. Telephones, radios

and televisions 3. Computers terminals with acces to the internet 4. Newspapers 5. Ships, aircraft, rockets and satellites in space

through a wireless 7. Communications keeps a weathers forecaster informed of conditions measured by a multitude of sensors. 8. The list of application is almost endless

The Communications Process
1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

The generation of a message signal: voice, music, picture, or computer data The description of that message signal with a certain measure of precision, by a set of symbols: electrical, aural, or visual. The encoding of these symbols in a form that is suitable for transmission over a physical medium of interest The transmission of the encoded symbols to the desired destination The decoding and reproduction of the original symbols The re-creation of the original mesage signal, with a definable degradation in quality: the degradation is caused by imperfections in the system

in which the communication process takes places over a link between a single transmitter and a receiver.Two Basic modes of communication 1. Point-to-point communications. 2. . which involves the used of single powerful transmitter and numerous receivers that are relatively inexpensive to build. Broadcasting.

Elements of communication system Communication System Source of information Transmitter Receiver User of information Messages signal Estimate of message signal Channel Transmitted signal Received signal .

and a band from 300 to 3100 Hz gives good articulation Noise refers to unwanted waves that tend to disturb the transmission and processing of message signals in a comunications system Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is the ratio of the average signal power to the average noise power. is the average power of the transmitted signal. is the band of frequencies allocated for the transmission of the message signal The average voice spectrum extend beyond 10 kHz. Transmitted power. measured in the same point. though most of the average power is concentrated in the range of 100 to 600 Hz. Channel bandwidth.Primary Communication Resources 1. 2. 4. . express in dBs. 3. 5.

A source of information (Speech.Sources of Information 1. Computer data) may be characterized in terms of the signal that cariers the information. . the function has a unique value. 2. Music. Pictures. A signal is defined as a single-valued function of time that plays the role of the independent variable. at every instant of time.

2.Speech Is the primary method of human communication. Production. Perception. in the speaker’s mind: speech signal. Propagation. in three successive stages: 1. through the air at a speed 300m/s 3. the process involves the transfer of information from a speaker to a listener. incoming sound: received message . Specifically.

A harmonic structure consisting of a set of simultaneous sounds 4. Originates from instruments such as the piano.Music 1. 2. violin. and flute. A melodie structure consisting of a time sequence of sounds 3. Musical signal demand a much wider channel bandwidth than speech signal for their transmission .

To do so. can be dynamic (TV) or static (facsimile) 2. carried out in a TV camera. In color TV. green (535 nm). 3. the perception of color is based on the three types of color receptor in the humans eye: red (570 nm). . and blue (445 nm).Pictures 1. each complete picture is sequentially scanned. Relies on human visual system for its perception. The pictures in motion are converted into electrical signals to facilitate their transport from the transmitter to the receiver.

High Idle 0 Low Start bit b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 1 Data bit Parity Stop bit bit .Computer data The text transmitted by PC is usually encoded using the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII). Each character is represented by seven data bits (binary digit) constituing a unique binary pattern made up of 0s and 1s.

The multiplexed stream of data so formed is then applied to a modem (modulator-demodulator) for the purpose of transmission over the channel. in which a whole sequence of encoded characters is sent over the channel in one long transmission.Data transmission Asynchronous transmission. Synchronous transmission. the text prepared on a PC and then transmitted over a communication channel with a single character being sent at a time. . 1. 3. 2.

. 1. operates by removing the redundant information. audio. a compression ratio higher than that attainable with lossless compression. Lossy compression involves the loss of information in a controlled manner. Lossless compression (data compaction). and video data from a service provider at a remote location. 2.Data compression Another way in which we use computer is to download compressed forms of text.

. which is waveform-preserving process. real-world scenes by exploiting known limitations of the human visual system  MPEG (Motion Photographic Experts Groups) -1/ video coding standard is designed to compress video signal at 30 frames per second (fps) into bit streams running at the rate of 1.5 megabits per second  MPEG-1/audio coding standard is based on perceptual coding. that is the amplitudetime wave form of the decoded audio signal closely approximates that of the original audio signal.Standard compression algorithms  JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Groups) image coding standard is designed to compress full-color or grayscale images of natural.

2. Consist of an interconnection of a number of routers made up of intelligent processors. Is designed to served a shared resource for moving data exchanged between hosts in an efficient manner and to provide a framework to Boundary support new application of subnet and services Routers Hosts .Communication Networks 1.

. 2. Is an example of communication network in which circuit switching is used to provide a dedicated communication path. or circuit. During the connection time. The circuits consists of a connected sequence of links from source to destination. between two hosts. the bandwidth and resources allocated to the circuit are essentially ”owned” by the two hosts until the circuit is disconnected. Circuit switching is usually controlled by a centralized hierarchical control mechanism with knowledge of the network organization.The telephone network 1.

each layer regards the next lower layer as one or more black boxes with some given functional specification to be used by the given higher layer . regarded as a hierarchy of nested layers. may proceed in an orderly way by looking at the network in terms of a layered architecture. 3. 4. At the system level. and the functional relation between outputs and inputs In layer architecture. Layer refers to a process or device inside a computer system. a user views the layer as a “black box” that is described in terms of inputs. 2.The design of a data network 1. design to performed a specific function. A network in which the hosts are all made up of computers and terminals. outputs.

At the system level. 1/3 The design of data network. outputs.OSI (Open System Interconnection) International Organization for Standardization 1. may proceed in an orderly way by looking at the network in terms of layers architecture. 2. regarded as hierarchy of nested layers. 3. Each layer regards the next lower layer as one or more black boxes with some given functional specification to be used by the the given higher layer. and the functional relation between outputs and inputs. designed to performed a specific function. . a user views the layer as a “black box” that is described in terms of inputs. Layers refers to a process or device inside a computer systems.

or levels. with well-defined interfaces. and with each layers built on it predecessors. the communications and related-connection functions are organized as a series of layers. refers to the ability of any two systems conforming to the reference model and its associated standards to interconnect 2. 3. 2/3 The term Open.OSI (Open System Interconnection) International Organization for Standardization 1. In particular. and it relies on the next lower layer to perform additional primitive functions . In OSI reference model. each layer performs a related subset of primitive functions.

OSI (Open System Interconnection) International Organization for Standardization Layer 7 6 3/3 End-user X Application Layer 7 protocol End-user Y Application Provision of access to the OSI Transformation of the input data to provide service selected Provision of the control End to end control of the message exchange Routing of the packets and flow control design Error control for the reliable transfer of information Mechanical. and procedural Virtual communication System B Physical communication Presentation Presentation 5 Session Transport Layer 3 protocol Layer 3 protocol Network Layer 2 protocol DLC DLC Layer 2 protocol Session Transport 4 3 Network Network 2 Data link control Physical Data link control Physical 1 Physical Physical link Physical Physical link System A Subnet node . functional. electrical.

3. 2. 4.Communication Channels Telephone network A coaxial cable (inner and outer conductor) An optical fiber (dielectric wave guide) Wireless broadcast channel (radio and TV) A mobile radio channel (encompass terrestrial situation where a radio transmitter or receiver is capable of being moved) 6. A satellite channel (broad-area coverage) 1. . 5.

known as demodulation. which is the reverse of the modulation process used in transmitter. the transmitter modifies into a form suitable for transmission over the channel. The receiver re-creates the original message signal from a degraded version of the transmitted signal after propagation through the channel. which involves varying some parameter of carrier wave in accordance with the message signal. 2. . To deliver a message signal. known as modulation.Modulation Process 1.

the amplitude of the carrier is varied in accordance with the message Angle modulation.Continuous-wave modulation A sinusoidal wave is used as the carrier: 1. 3. 2. the instantaneous phase of the carrier is varied . the instantaneous frequency of the carrier is varied Phase modulation (PM). the angle of the carrier is varied Frequency modulation (FM). Amplitude modulation (AM). 4.

Pulse modulation The carrier consists of a periodic sequence of rectangular pulses. 2. In analog pulse modulation. PDM (Pulse –duration modulation) . the amplitude. 1. or position of a pulse is varied in accoerdance with sample values of the message signal PAM (Pulse-amplitude modulation). duration. and PPM (Pulse-position modulation) .

Pulse-code modulation (PCM) 1. The standard digital forme of pulse modulation. 2. PCM starts out essentially as PAM: The amplitude of each. modulated pulse (sample of the original message signal) is quantized or roundedd off to the nearest value in a prescribed set of discrete amplitude level and then coded into a corresponding sequence of binary symbols .

Digital communication system Source of information Message signal Estimate of message signal User of information Source encoder Source code word Source decoder Estimate of source code word Channel decoder Estimate of channel code word Demodulator Transmitter Channel encoder Channel code word Modulator Receiver Waveform Channel Received signal .

Encode/modulate the message signal generated by the source of information. transmit it over the channel. The design of an analog communication system is simple in conceptual term but difficult to build because of stringent requirements on linearity and system adjusment. the system is robust.Analog and Digital Types of Communication 1. moreover. The design of a digital communication system is rather complex in conceptual terms but easy to build. . offering greater tolerance of physical effects than its analog counterpart. 3. and produce an “estimate” of it at the receiver output that satisfies the requirments of the end user 2.

1/2 2. 3.Other advantages of digital communication 1. video. noise does not accumulate from repeater to repeater . Relatively inexpensive digital circuits Privacy is preserved by using data encryption Greater dynamic range (the diference between the largest and smallest values) is possible Data from voice. 4. 5. and data source may be merged and transmitted over a common digital transmission system In long distance system.

Other advantages of digital communication 6. Synchronize is required 1. . 2/2 Error in detected data may be small. Error may often be corrected by the use of coding  Disadvantages of digital communication: Generally. more bandwidth is required than that fr analog systems 2. even when there is large amount of noise on the received signal 7.

In the case of digital comunication system. The mesage signal is delivered to the user both efficiently and reliably. available channel bandwidth. . subject to certain design constraints: allowable transmit power. 2. and affordable cost of building the system.Shannon’s Information Capacity Theorem 1. reliability is commonly expressed in terms of bit error rate (BER) or probability of bit error measured at the receiver output.

its measured in bits per second (b/s) C = B log2 (1 + SNR) B: the channel bandwidth C: the information capacity of the channel .The information capacity theorem The maximum rate at which information can be transmitted across the channel without error.

receiver) Message signal m(t) X Transmitted signal s(t) Transmitted signal s(t) +  + Channel output (received signal) x(t) (a) Carrier wave Ac cos (2 fc t) Correlator Received signal x(t) Noise w(t) (b) X  dt yT Decision making device Say 1 if yT > 0 Otherwise. say 0 Local carrier cos (2 fc t) Threshold = 0 (c) . channel.Elements of a digital Communication system (transmitter.

A Digital Communication Problem 1/4 The issue of the receiver determining whether a binary symbol sent over a noisy channel is decoded in error or not is of fundamental importance to the design of digital communication systems 2. Such a signal may represent the output of digital computer or digitized version of speech signal. and symbol 0 is represented by a constant level -1. we employ a simple modulation scheme known as phase-shift keying. 3. consisting of symbols 1 and 0. . To facilitate the transmision. 1. each of which lasts for duration T. Suppose a random signal. m(t). Symbol 1 is represented by a constant level +1.

The output of the transmitter (figure: Elements ...A Digital Communication Problem 2/4 Specifically.) is defined by: s(t) = Ac cos(2 fct) for symbol 1 -Ac cos(2 fct) for symbol 0 where Ac is the carrier amplitude. fc (multiple of 1/T) is frequency and t is time with 0 ≤ t ≤ T 4. . fc (multiple of 1/T) is the carrier frequency and t is time with 0 ≤ t ≤ T 5. the information bearing signal m(t) is multiplied by sinusoidal carrier wave Ac cos(2 fct) where Ac is the carrier amplitude.

channel. Elements of a digital Communication system (Block diagram of transmitter. and receiver) Message signal m(t) X Transmitted signal s(t) Transmitted signal s(t) +  + Channel output (received signal) x(t) (a) Carrier wave Ac cos (2 fc t) Correlator Received signal x(t) X Noise w(t) (b)  dt yT Decision making device Say 1 if yT > 0 Otherwise.A Digital Communication Problem 3/4 6. say 0 Local carrier cos (2 fc t) Threshold = 0 (c) .

the correlator output yT is compared against a threshold of zero volts by the DMC (decision-making device) 7.A Digital Communication Problem 4/4 The channel is assumed to be distorsionless but noisy. The correlator output is: yT = + Ac/2 + wT for symbol 1 .Ac/2 + wT for symbol 0. where wT is the contribution of the correlator output due to the channel noise w(t). . the receive signal is defined by: x(t) = s(t) + w(t) where w(t) is the additive channel noise 8. The receiver concist of a correlator followed by a decision-making device.

except for the scaling factor of ½. is inversely proportional to the reciprocal of the symbol duration T. the reciprocal of T is also the signaling rate of the system in b/s . The transmitted signal in figure consists of the product of this rectangular signal and the sinusoidal carrier Ac cos (2 fc t).Some basic issues From the Fourier analysis we find that the time-bandwidth product of a pulse signal is constant. This means that the bandwidth of a rectangular pulse of duration T is inversely proportional to T. It follows therefore that the bandwidth of the transmitted signal m(t). The multiplication of signal by a sinusoid has the effect of shifting the Fourier transform of the signal to the right by fc and to the left by an equal amount. and therefore the required channel bandwidth. For the problem at hand.

What is the  Practical issues: 1. How do we design the channel to come 2.Theoritical & practical considerations  Theoritical issues: 1. How do we relate the very close to statistics of the Shannon’s random variable W to information capacity the statistical theorem? characteristic of the channel noise? 3. How do we synchronize the 3. How do we choose a modulation scheme? justification for the receiver structur? 2. What is the receiver to the probability of transmitter? decision errors? .

Sky-wave Propagation (2-30 MHz) 3. Ground wave Propagation (Below 2 MHz) 2.Propagation of radio frequencies 1. Line of Sight (LOS) Propagation (Above 30 MHz) .

Frequency Bands Frequency Designation Band 3-30 kHz Very low frequency (VLF) Propagation Characteristics Ground wave. submarine communication Long-range navigation and marine communication radio beacons Maritime radio. atmospheric noise 1/4 Typical Uses Long-range navigation. low attenuation day n night. direction finding. slightly less reliable. high atmospheric noise level Similar to VLF. and AM broadcasting 30-300 kHz Low F (LF) 300-3000 kHz Medium F (MF) . attenuation low at night and high in day. absorption in daytime Ground wave and night sky wave.

low atmospheric noise at 30 MHz 30-300 MHz Very high frequency (VHF) Nearly line-of-sight (LOS) propagation.distance aircraft and ship communication. FM twoway radio. GPS. radar. telegraph. season. and frequency. cosmic noise 0.3-3 GHz Ultra high frequency (UHF) . cosmic noise LOS propagation. microwave links. with scattering because of temperature inversions. long. facsimile VHF television. personal communications systems Propagation Characteristics Ionospheric reflection varies with time of day. military communication. navigational aids. aircraft navigational aids UHF television. AM aircraft communication. international broadcasting. cellular telephone.Frequency Bands Frequency Designation Band 3-30 MHz High frequency (HF) 2/4 Typical Uses Amateur radio. telephone.

0-40.0 2.0-27.0-8. atmospheric attenuation because of oxygen and water vapor. rainfall attenuation above 10 GHz.0-4.0 26.0 3-30GHz L S Superhigh frequency (SHF) C X Ku K Ka R Extremely high freq (EHF) Propagation Characteristics 3/4 Typical Uses Satellite communicati on.0-2.0 8.5-40 30-300 GHz LOS propagation. high water vapor absorption at 22.2 GHz Same.0 27. satellite.0 12. experimental .Frequency Bands Frequency Designation Band 1. high water-vapor absorption at 183 GHz and oxygen absorption at 60 ang 119 GHz Radar. radar microwave links 4.0-12.0-18.0 18.

0 103-107 GHz Designation Extremely high frequency (EHF) Propagation Characteristics LOS propagation.0-110. 4/4 Typical Uses Optical communications .0-75.0 75.0 40.0 110.0 26.0-300.0-40.5-40 33.0-50.Frequency Bands Frequency Band 27.