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SANCHIT SINGLA 100905089 EIC 3( ATTENDING TUTE WITH EIC 2

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CAMERA .EYE Vs.

3 Common Visions Problems .

MYOPIA  Nearsightedness  CLOSE objects can be seen PERFECTLY while objects at DISTANCE appear BLURRED  Light rays converge in front of retina  Mainly occurs in school years .

 Opposite of myopia  Farsightedness  Can see DISTANT object more CLEARLY than nearby objects  Light rays focus behind retina  Mainly occurs in old age. .

. Objects both far and near appear blurred  Light entering the eyeball focuses on multiple areas rather than on retina.  Can occur with myopia as well as hyperopia.

 Glasses  Contact Lenses .

. Another method of creating this flap is by using a procedure called IntraLase.  Laser Assisted In-Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK): The surgeon uses a microkeratome or femtosecond laser to cut a flap of the corneal tissue (usually with a thickness of 100-180 micrometres). targeted tissue is removed from the corneal stroma. and then the flap is replaced.Flap procedures  Automated lamellar keratoplasty (ALK): The surgeon uses an instrument called a microkeratome to cut a thin flap of the corneal tissue. The flap is subsequently replaced. but there have been no conclusive independent studies to prove that this is a true statement. The flap is lifted like a hinged door. Proponents of this method assert its superiority over "traditional" LASIK. again with the microkeratome. The flap is lifted like a hinged door. the targeted tissue is removed from the corneal stroma with an excimer laser. but in contrast to ALK. in which a femtosecond laser is used to create the flap.

The difference from LASIK is that the top layer of the epithelium is removed (and a bandage contact lens is used). Laser Assisted Sub-Epithelium Keratomileusis (LASEK) is a procedure that also changes the shape of the cornea using an excimer laser to ablate the tissue from the corneal stroma. though the final outcome (after 3 months) is about the same (very good). the epithelium heals. During the weeks following LASEK. . The surgeon uses an alcohol solution to loosen then lift a thin layer of the epithelium with a trephine blade (usually with a thickness of 50 micrometres). which is kept mostly intact to act as a natural bandage. This healing process can involve discomfort comparable to that with PRK. under the corneal epithelium. so no flap is created. using a computer-controlled beam of light (excimer laser). leaving no permanent flap in the cornea. Recovery time is longer with PRK than with LASIK.Surface procedures Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is an outpatient procedure generally performed with local anesthetic eye drops (as with LASIK/LASEK) . It is a type of refractive surgery which reshapes the cornea by removing microscopic amounts of tissue from the corneal stroma.

LASIK stands for Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis and is a procedure that permanently changes the shape of the cornea. using an excimer laser. . the clear covering of the front of the eye. LASIK is the most advance form of laser vision correction that is currently available.

or xenon) and a reactive gas (fluorine or chlorine). An excimer laser is a form of ultraviolet laser. The term excimer is short for 'excited dimer’. krypton. a pseudo-molecule called an excimer is created. An excimer laser typically uses a combination of a noble gas (argon. which can only exist in an energized state and can give rise to laser light in the ultraviolet range  The development of excimer laser is the key element that has made laser eye surgery possible. . Under the appropriate conditions of electrical stimulation and high pressure.

ADVANTAGES: The EXCIMER LASER is a “cool” laser i.e it does not generate heat in the cornea . It has the ability to focus a beam as small as 0.25 microns . The Excimer laser is incredibly precise.

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. the microkeratome creates a 100 to 200 micrometre thick flap. and in the LASIK procedure.MICROKERATOME A microkeratome is a precision surgical instrument with an oscillating blade designed for creating the corneal flap in LASIK or ALK surgery. This piece of equipment is used all around the world to cut the cornea flap. The normal human cornea varies from around 500 to 600 micrometres in thickness.

 Step 1. A suction ring is centered over the cornea of the eye .

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To treat myopia. the excimer laser flattens the corneal contour . By controlling the size. the surgeon can precisely control how much of the cornea is removed. Laser eye surgery works by pulsing a tightly-focused beam of light (laser) onto the surface of the eye. the laser vaporizes a microscopic portion of the cornea .  With nearsightedness either the surface contour of the cornea is too steep. Upon contact with the surface of the cornea. position and number of laser pulses.

 With farsightedness. . To remove astigmatism. the excimer laser steepens the corneal contour. either the surface contour of the cornea is too flat or the length of the eye is too short. the corneal surface has an oval shape rather than a round shape.  In the case of astigmatism. To remove hyperopia. the excite laser recontours the corneal shape from an oval back into a circle.

.STEP 5: The flap is then restored to its normal position.

 You may still need eyeglasses after surgery. results may diminish with age. . Some patients lose vision.  Some patients may develop severe dry eye syndrome.  For some farsighted patients.

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wrestling.  You have a disease or are on medications that may affect wound healing. . You required a change in your contact lens or glasses prescription in the past year. This is called refractive instability. martial arts or other activities in which blows to the face and eyes are a normal occurrence.  You actively participate in contact sports such as boxing.