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NUCLEIC ACIDS

Topic Outline:
 Structure and Function  Types of Nucleic Acids

1. DNA 2. RNA  Central Dogma of Life

Nucleic acids- comprise the fourth major group of biomolecules in living cells. - play extremely important roles in the cell. - also called as biopolymers Common nucleic acids: 1. DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid - the hereditary molecule
2. RNA- Ribonucleic acid - participate in the conversion of the genetic code into proteins and other gene products.

Nucleotides- are building blocks of the nucleic acid polymers. - are complex monomers than amino acids. Structural Components of the Nucleotides: a. Nitrogen-containing base - nitrogenous base b. A five-carbon sugar- pentose c. A phosphate group

Types of Nucleic acids: 1. DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid - DNA nucleotides - found in the nucleus with small amount of mitochondria and chloroplast Component: a. Nitrogenous base b. Deoxyribose c. Phosphate group -genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. - The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes,

2. RNA- Ribonucleic acid - RNA Nucleotides - found throughout the cell Component: a. Nitrogenous base b. Ribose c. Phosphate group - plays several important roles in the processes of transcribing genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into proteins.

PHOSPATE

SUGAR Ribose or Deoxyribose

BASE
PURINES
Adenine (A) Guanine(G)

PYRIMIDINES Cytocine (C) Thymine (T) Uracil (U)

NUCLEOTIDE

Difference between the pentose sugar of DNA and RNA
RIBOSE
DEOXYRIBOSE

CH2OH

O

OH
C

CH2OH C H H C OH

O

OH C H C H

C
H

H
C

H C

H

H

OH

OH

P

THE SUGAR-PHOSPHATE BACKBONE
 The nucleotides are all orientated in the same direction

P

P

P

P

P

P G

ADDING IN THE BASES
P C

 The bases are attached to the 1st Carbon  Their order is important It determines the

P C

P A P T

genetic information of the molecule

P

T

Hydrogen bonds

DNA IS MADE OF TWO STRANDS OF POLYNUCLEOTIDE

P

G
P C P C

C P G P G P

P
A P T P T A P T P

A
P

DNA IS MADE OF TWO STRANDS OF POLYNUCLEOTIDE
 The sister strands of the DNA molecule run in opposite
 

 

directions (antiparallel) They are joined by the bases Each base is paired with a specific partner: A is always paired with T G is always paired with C “Purine with Pyrimidine” The sister strands are complementary but not identical The bases are joined by hydrogen bonds, individually weak but collectively strong

 There are 10 base pairs per turn

Difference between Pyrimidine and Purine Bases

Major difference between DNA and RNA
*DNA is double stranded, whereas RNA is single stranded *DNA contains deoxyribose, whereas RNA contains ribose * DNA contains thymine, whereas RNA contains uracil.

CENTRAL DOGMA
It was Francis Crick who in 1957, proposed what referred to as the central dogma. DNA
mRNA PROTEIN

Cellular Processes
replication DNA transcription RNA (mRNA) translation Proteins

Replication
- 0ccurs by the separation of the DNA strands and the building of complementary strands by the addition of the correct DNA nucleotides.

Replication-formation of two new double-DNA strands from a parent strand

Transcription-the information in one gene of a DNA molecule is used to produce mRNA molecule.
Events: 1. one strand of DNA unwinds temporarily exposing the bases. 2. Attraction of the bases of RNA nucleotides and a MRNA molecule begins to built alongside of one of the strand.

Initiating codon: AUG Stop codon: UAA UAG UGA

Translation- information of one mRNA molecule is used to produce protein
- The base sequence of the mRNA molecule to interpreted in the group of three bases are called codons. - this will be used for the determination of amino acid .

GENETIC CODE in mRNA

Alanine- Ala Arginine- Arg Asparagine- Asn Aspartic Acid-Asp Cysteine- Cys

Glycine- Gly Histidine-His Isoleucine- Ile Leucine- Leu Lysine- Lys

Methionine- Met Phenylalanine- Phe Proline- Pro Serine- Ser Threonine- Thr

Tyrosine-Tyr Valine- Val

Glutamic Acid- Glu

Glutamine-Gln

Tryptophan- Trp

GENERAL ILLUSTRATION ON THE FLOW OF GENETIC INFORMATION

Solve:
Using the genetic code, identify the amino acid sequence:  5’- C G C G A A T T C G C G –3’  3’- G C G C T T A A G C G C –5’