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You are on page 1of 36

**Lecture 9 - Kolmogorov‟s Theory
**

Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics

Instructor: André Bakker

© André Bakker (2002-2005)

© Fluent Inc. (2002)

2

Eddy size

• Kolmogorov‟s theory describes

how energy is transferred from

larger to smaller eddies; how

much energy is contained by

eddies of a given size; and how

much energy is dissipated by

eddies of each size.

• We will derive three main

turbulent length scales: the

integral scale, the Taylor scale,

and the Kolmogorov scale; and

corresponding Reynolds

numbers.

• We will also discuss the concept

of energy and dissipation

spectra.

3

Jets at two different Reynolds numbers

Relatively low Reynolds number

Relatively high Reynolds number

Source: Tennekes & Lumley. Page 22.

4

Turbulent eddies

• Consider fully turbulent flow at high Reynolds number Re=UL/v.

• Turbulence can be considered to consist of eddies of different sizes.

• An „eddy‟ preludes precise definition, but it is conceived to be a turbulent motion,

localized over a region of size l, that is at least moderately coherent over this

region.

• The region occupied by a larger eddy can also contain smaller eddies.

• Eddies of size l have a characteristic velocity u(l) and timescale t(l) ÷ l/u(l).

• Eddies in the largest size range are characterized by the lengthscale l

0

which is

comparable to the flow length scale L.

• Their characteristic velocity u

0

÷u(l

0

) is on the order of the r.m.s. turbulence

intensity u’ ÷(2k/3)

1/2

which is comparable to U.

• Here the turbulent kinetic energy is defined as:

• The Reynolds number of these eddies Re

0

÷u

0

l

0

/v is therefore large (comparable

to Re) and the direct effects of viscosity on these eddies are negligibly small.

) ' ' ' (

2 2 2

2

1

2

1

w v u u u k

i i

+ + = > < =

5

Integral scale

• We can derive an estimate of the lengthscale l

0

of the larger eddies

based on the following:

– Eddies of size l

0

have a characteristic velocity u

0

and timescale t

0

÷ l

0

/u

0

– Their characteristic velocity u

0

÷u(l

0

) is on the order of the r.m.s. turbulence

intensity u’ ÷(2k/3)

1/2

– Assume that energy of eddy with velocity scale u

0

is dissipated in time t

0

• We can then derive the following equation for this length scale:

• Here, c(m

2

/s

3

) is the energy dissipation rate. The proportionality constant

is of the order one. This lengthscale is usually referred to as the integral

scale of turbulence.

• The Reynolds number associated with these large eddies is referred to

as the turbulence Reynolds number Re

L

, which is defined as:

3/ 2

0

k

l

c

·

1/ 2 2

0

Re

L

k l k

v cv

= =

6

Energy transfer

• The large eddies are unstable and break up, transferring their

energy to somewhat smaller eddies.

• These smaller eddies undergo a similar break-up process and

transfer their energy to yet smaller eddies.

• This energy cascade – in which energy is transferred to

successively smaller and smaller eddies – continues until the

Reynolds number Re(l) ÷u(l)l/v is sufficiently small that the eddy

motion is stable, and molecular viscosity is effective in dissipating

the kinetic energy.

• At these small scales, the kinetic energy of turbulence is

converted into heat.

7

Richardson

• L.F. Richardson (“Weather Prediction by Numerical Process.”

Cambridge University Press, 1922) summarized this in the

following often cited verse:

Big whirls have little whirls

Which feed on their velocity;

And little whirls have lesser whirls,

And so on to viscosity

in the molecular sense.

8

Dissipation

• Note that dissipation takes place at the end of the sequence of

processes.

• The rate of dissipation c is determined, therefore by the first

process in the sequence, which is the transfer of energy from the

largest eddies.

• These eddies have energy of order u

0

2

and timescale t

0

=l

0

/u

0

so

the rate of transfer of energy can be supposed to scale as

u

0

2

/t

0

= u

0

3

/l

0

• Consequently, consistent with experimental observations in free

shear flows, this picture of the energy cascade indicates that c is

proportional to u

0

3

/l

0

independent of v (at high Reynolds

numbers).

9

Kolmogorov‟s theory

• Many questions remain unanswered.

– What is the size of the smallest eddies that are responsible for

dissipating the energy?

– As l decreases, do the characteristic velocity and timescales u(l) and

t(l) increase, decrease, or stay the same? The assumed decrease of

the Reynolds number u

0

l

0

/v by itself is not sufficient to determine

these trends.

• These and others are answered by Kolmogorov‟s theory of

turbulence (1941, see Pope (2000)).

• Kolmogorov‟s theory is based on three important hypotheses

combined with dimensional arguments and experimental

observations.

10

Kolmogorov‟s hypothesis of local isotropy

• For homogenous turbulence, the turbulent kinetic energy k is the

same everywhere. For isotropic turbulence the eddies also

behave the same in all directions:

• Kolmogorov argued that the directional biases of the large scales

are lost in the chaotic scale-reduction process as energy is

transferred to successively smaller eddies.

• Hence Kolmogorov‟s hypothesis of local isotropy states that at

sufficiently high Reynolds numbers, the small-scale turbulent motions

(l << l

0

) are statistically isotropic.

• Here, the term local isotropy means isotropy at small scales.

Large scale turbulence may still be anisotropic.

• l

EI

is the length scale that forms the demarcation between the

large scale anisotropic eddies (l>l

EI

) and the small scale isotropic

eddies (l<l

EI

). For many high Reynolds number flows l

EI

can be

estimated as l

EI

~ l

0

/6.

2 2 2

' ' ' u v w = =

11

Kolmogorov‟s first similarity hypothesis

• Kolmogorov also argued that not only does the directional

information get lost as the energy passes down the cascade, but

that all information about the geometry of the eddies gets lost

also.

• As a result, the statistics of the small-scale motions are universal:

they are similar in every high Reynolds number turbulent flow,

independent of the mean flow field and the boundary conditions.

• These small scale eddies depend on the rate T

EI

at which they

receive energy from the larger scales (which is approximately

equal to the dissipation rate c) and the viscous dissipation, which

is related to the kinematic viscosity v.

• Kolmogorov‟s first similarity hypothesis states that in every

turbulent flow at sufficiently high Reynolds number, the statistics of the

small scale motions (l<l

EI

) have a universal form that is uniquely

determined by c and v.

12

Kolmogorov scales

• Given the two parameters c and v we can form the following unique

length, velocity, and time scales:

• These scales are indicative of the smallest eddies present in the flow,

the scale at which the energy is dissipated.

• Note that the fact that the Kolmogorov Reynolds number Re

q

of the small

eddies is 1, is consistent with the notion that the cascade proceeds to

smaller and smaller scales until the Reynolds number is small enough

for dissipation to be effective.

3 1/ 4

1/ 4

1/ 2

: ( / )

: ( )

: ( / )

( / ) 1/

Re / 1

length scale

velocity scale u

time scale

u

u

q

q

q q

q q

q v c

cv

t v c

q t

q v

=

=

=

=

= =

14

Universal equilibrium range

• The size range (l<l

EI

) is referred to as the universal equilibrium

range.

• In this range, the timescales l/u(l) are small compared to l

0

/u

0

so

that the small eddies can adapt quickly to maintain dynamic

equilibrium with the energy transfer rate T

EI

imposed by the large

eddies.

• On these scales all high Reynolds number flow fields are

statistically identical if the flow fields are scaled by the

Kolmogorov scales.

15

Ratio between large and small scales

• When we use the relationship l

0

~ k

3/2

/c and substitute it in the

equations for the Kolmogorov scales, we can calculate the ratios

between the small scale and large scale eddies.

• As expected, at high Reynolds numbers, the velocity and

timescales of the smallest eddies are small compared to those of

the largest eddies.

• Since q/l

0

decreases with increasing Reynolds number, at high

Reynolds number there will be a range of intermediate scales l

which is small compared to l

0

and large compared with q.

3/ 4

0

1/ 4

0

1/ 2

0

/ ~ Re

/ ~ Re

/ ~ Re

L

L

L

l

u u

q

q

q

t t

÷

÷

÷

16

Kolmogorov‟s second similarity hypothesis

• Because the Reynolds number of the intermediate scales l is

relatively large, they will not be affected by the viscosity v.

• Based on that, Kolmogorov‟s second similarity hypothesis states

that in every turbulent flow at sufficiently high Reynolds number, the

statistics of the motions of scale l in the range l

0

>> l >> q have a

universal form that is uniquely determined by c independent of v.

• We introduce a new length scale l

DI

, (with l

DI

~ 60q for many

turbulent high Reynolds number flows) so that this range can be

written as l

EI

> l

> l

DI

• This length scale splits the universal equilibrium range into two

subranges:

– The inertial subrange (l

EI

> l

> l

DI

) where motions are determined by

inertial effects and viscous effects are negligible.

– The dissipation range (l

< l

DI

) where motions experience viscous

effects.

21

Eddy sizes

• The bulk of the energy is contained in the larger eddies in the size

range l

EI

= l

0

/6 < l < 6l

0

, which is therefore called the energy-

containing range.

• The suffixes EI and DI indicate that l

EI

is the demarcation line

between energy (E) and inertial (I) ranges, as l

DI

is that between

the dissipation (D) and inertial (I) ranges.

Inertial subrange Dissipation range

Energy

containing

range

Universal equilibrium range

q l

DI

l

EI

l

0

L

Kolmogorov

length scale

Taylor

microscale

Integral

length scale

22

Taylor scales

• The eddy size in the inertial subrange is given by the Taylor

microscale ì:

• A commonly used quantity in the characterization of turbulence is

the Taylor-scale Reynolds number R

ì

.

• This is based on the length scale ì and the corresponding

velocity scale:

• R

ì

can be related to the turbulence Reynolds number as follows:

1/ 2

(10 / ) k ì v c ~

' / R u

ì

ì v =

( )

1/ 2

20

3

Re

L

R

ì

=

23

Energy transfer rate

• The rate at which energy is transferred from the larger scales to

the smaller scales is T(l).

• Under the equilibrium conditions in the inertial subrange this is

equal to the dissipation rate c, and is proportional to u(l)

2

/t.

Inertial

subrange

Dissipation c

Energy

containing

range

Dissipation

range

q l

DI

l

EI

l

0

L

Production P

T(l)

Transfer of energy to

successively smaller scales

24

Wavenumbers

• The wavenumber k is defined as k = 2t/l.

• The different ranges can be shown as a function of wavenumber.

• The wavenumber can also be made non-dimensional by multiplying it with the

Kolmogorov length scale q to result in the commonly used dimensionless group

(q k).

Universal equilibrium range

q k

0

= 2tq/l

0

q k

EI

= 2tq/l

EI

q k

DI

= 2tq/l

DI

q k

q

= 2t

Inertial subrange Dissipation range

Energy

containing

range

k

0

= 2t/l

0

k

EI

= 2t/l

EI

k

DI

= 2t/l

DI

k

q

= 2t/q

Non dimensional form

25

Energy spectrum

• The turbulent kinetic energy k is given by:

• It remains to be determined how the turbulent kinetic energy is

distributed among the eddies of different sizes.

• This is usually done by considering the energy spectrum E(k).

• Here E(k) is the energy contained in eddies of size l and

wavenumber k, defined as k = 2t/l.

• By definition k is the integral of E(k) over all wavenumbers:

• The energy contained in eddies with wavenumbers between k

A

and k

B

is then:

0

( ) k E d k k

·

=

}

( , )

( )

B

A B

A

k E d

k

k k

k

k k =

}

) ' ' ' (

2 2 2

2

1

2

1

w v u u u k

i i

+ + = > < =

26

E(k) in inertial subrange

• We will develop an equation for E(k) in the inertial subrange.

• According to the second similarity hypothesis E(k) will solely

depend on k and c.

• We can then perform the following dimensional analysis:

• The last equation describes the famous Kolmogorov –5/3

spectrum. C is the universal Kolmogorov constant, which

experimentally was determined to be C = 1.5.

2 2 2 3 1

3 2

2/ 3 5/ 3 3 2

2/ 3 5/ 3

2/ 3 5/ 3

[ ] ; [ ] ; [ ] ;

[ ( )] [ ] /[ ]

: [ ]

( )

( )

k m s m s m

E k m s

Dimensional analysis m s

E

E C

c k

k k

c k

k c k

k c k

÷ ÷ ÷

÷

÷ ÷

÷

÷

= = =

= =

=

¬ ·

¬ =

27

Full spectrum E(k)

• Model equations for E(k) in the production range and dissipation

range have been developed. We will not discuss the theory

behind them here.

• The full spectrum is given by:

• Will not discuss f

L

and f

q

today.

q

k c k f f C E

L

3 / 5 3 / 2

) (

÷

=

log E(k)

log k

Dissipation

range

Inertial

subrange

Energy

containing

range

29

Normalized spectrum

• For given values of c, v, and k the full spectrum can now be

calculated based on these equations.

• It is, however common to normalize the spectrum in one of two

ways: based on the Kolmogorov scales or based on the integral

length scale.

• Based on Kolmogorov scale:

– Measure of length scale becomes (q k).

– E(k) is made dimensionless as E(k)/(q u

q

2

)

• Based on integral scale:

– Measure of length scale becomes (l

0

k).

– E(k) is made dimensionless as E(k)/(k l

0

)

• Instead of having three adjustable parameters (c,v,k), the

normalized spectrum then has only one adjustable parameter: R

ì

.

30

The normalized energy spectrum for R

ì

= 500

k q

2

( ) E

u

q

k

q

slope 2

slope –5/3

31

The energy spectrum as a function of R

ì

2

( ) E

u

q

k

q

k q

R

ì

=30

100

300

1000

32

The energy spectrum as a function of R

ì

0

( ) E

k l

k

0

l k

R

ì

=30

100

300

1000

33

Measurements of spectra

The figure shows experimentally measured one

dimensional spectra (one velocity component

was measured only, as indicated by the “1” and

“11” subscripts). The number at the end of the

reference denotes the value of R

ì

for which the

measurements were done. Source: Pope, page

235.

Determination of the spectrum requires

simultaneous measurements of all velocity

components at multiple points, which is usually

not possible. It is common to measure one

velocity component at one point over a certain

period of time and convert the time signal to a

spatial signal using x = Ut with U being the

time averaged velocity. This is commonly

referred to as Taylor’s hypothesis of frozen

turbulence. It is only valid for u’/U << 1, which

is not always the case. Spectrum measurements

remain a challenging field of research.

34

Energy containing range

• From the energy spectrum, we can derive which length scales

contain most of the turbulent kinetic energy in the flow.

• The derivation will not be reproduced here.

• The conclusion is that most of the energy (~80%) is contained in

eddies of length scale l

EI

= l

0

/6 < l < 6l

0

.

37

The dissipation rate spectrum

• We now know which eddies contain most of the energy. The

question remains, which eddies exactly dissipate the energy.

• This question can be answered by constructing a dissipation rate

spectrum D(k). The integral of D(k) over the full wavelength range

is by definition the energy dissipation rate c:

• The unit of D(k) is m

3

/s

3

and it can thus be normalized with a

velocity scale cubed, typically the Kolmogorov velocity scale.

• Just as the normalized E(k) only depended on R

ì

, so does the

normalized D(k) depend only on R

ì

.

0

( ) D d c k k

·

=

}

38

Dissipation rate spectrum

The normalized dissipation

rate spectrum (solid line) and

cumulative dissipation rate

(dashed line) for R

ì

= 600.

3

( ) D

u

q

k

(0, ) c k

c

k q

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

/q 50 20 10 5

39

Dissipation range

• The dissipation rate spectrum can be integrated to show that

most of the dissipation (~90%) occurs in eddies of length scales

l

DI

/q = 60 > l/q > 8.

• This means that most of the dissipation occurs at scales that are

larger than the Kolmogorov scale q. The Kolmogorov scale

should be interpreted as a measure of the smallest eddies that

are present in a turbulent flow at high Reynolds numbers.

• How long does it take for a large scale eddy to break up and be

dissipated? The spectra can be further analyzed to show that

eddies spend about 90% of their total lifetime t=k/c in the

production range, and that once eddies enter the inertial

subrange it takes only about t/10 before the energy is being

dissipated. This time t/10 is also referred to as the cascade

timescale.

40

Intermittency

• Neither k nor c are constant in time or space.

• Within a turbulent flow field, k and c may vary widely in space,

sometimes by orders of magnitude.

• Also, at a given point in space the instantaneous values of c may

vary in time. This is called intermittency. The peak values of c

relative to the mean tend to increase with Reynolds number.

Peak values may be of the order of 15 times the average c in

laboratory scale flows and 50 times the average in atmospheric

flows.

41

Summary – Reynolds numbers

• The following Reynolds numbers have been defined:

– Flow Reynolds number:

– Turbulence Reynolds number:

– Taylor Reynolds number:

– Kolmogorov Reynolds number:

• The flow Reynolds number is on the order of one to ten times the

turbulence Reynolds number.

• The turbulence and Taylor Reynolds numbers can be related as

follows:

Re / 1 u

q q

q v = =

Re / UL v =

2

Re /

L

k cv =

' / R u

ì

ì v =

( )

1/ 2

20

3

Re

L

R

ì

=

42

Summary – length scales

• The integral length scale is a measure of the large scale eddies in

the production range:

The proportionality constant is of the order one.

• The Taylor microscale is a measure of the size of the eddies in

the inertial subrange:

• The Kolmogorov microscale is the size of the smallest eddies

present in the flow:

• The length scales can be related as follows:

3/ 2

0

/ l k c ·

1/ 2

(10 / ) k ì v c ~

3 1/ 4

( / ) q v c =

1/ 2

0

3/ 4

0

1/ 4

2/ 3 1/ 3

0

/ 10 Re

/ Re

/ 10 Re

10

L

L

L

l

l

l

ì

q

ì q

ì q

÷

÷

=

=

=

=

43

Validity of Kolmogorov‟s theory

• Kolmogorov‟s theory is an asymptotic theory: it has been shown to work

well in the limit of very high Reynolds numbers.

• The exact shape of the normalized spectra may deviate from

Kolmogorov‟s model spectra for intermediate Reynolds numbers. E.g.

for many laboratory scale flows which have Reynolds numbers on the

order of 10,000 with R

ì

~ 250, the exponent of E(k) ~ k

-p

in the inertial

subrange is often measured to be p ~ 1.5 instead of 5/3 (~1.67).

• Kolmogorov‟s theory assumes that the energy cascade is one way: from

large eddies to small eddies. Experimental studies have shown that

energy is also transferred from smaller scales to larger scales (a

process called backscatter), albeit at a much lower rate and the

dominant energy transfer is indeed from large to small.

• The theory assumes that turbulence at high Reynolds numbers is

completely random. In practice, large scale coherent structures may

form.

• Research into the fundamental aspects of turbulence continues, both

experimentally and by means of large computer simulations using DNS

(direct numerical simulation); and the theory continues to be refined.

44

Sources

• Pope, Stephen B. “Turbulent Flows.” Cambridge University Press

2000.

• Tennekes H., Lumley J.L. “A First Course in Turbulence.” The

MIT Press 1972.

Eddy size

• Kolmogorov‟s theory describes how energy is transferred from larger to smaller eddies; how much energy is contained by eddies of a given size; and how much energy is dissipated by eddies of each size. • We will derive three main turbulent length scales: the integral scale, the Taylor scale, and the Kolmogorov scale; and corresponding Reynolds numbers. • We will also discuss the concept of energy and dissipation spectra.

2

**Jets at two different Reynolds numbers
**

Relatively low Reynolds number

Relatively high Reynolds number

Source: Tennekes & Lumley. Page 22.

3

The region occupied by a larger eddy can also contain smaller eddies. that is at least moderately coherent over this region. Turbulence can be considered to consist of eddies of different sizes. • • • • • • 4 .Turbulent eddies • • • Consider fully turbulent flow at high Reynolds number Re=UL/. An „eddy‟ preludes precise definition. localized over a region of size l.s. Eddies in the largest size range are characterized by the lengthscale l0 which is comparable to the flow length scale L. Eddies of size l have a characteristic velocity u(l) and timescale t(l) l/u(l). but it is conceived to be a turbulent motion. turbulence intensity u’ (2k/3)1/2 which is comparable to U. Their characteristic velocity u0u(l0) is on the order of the r. Here the turbulent kinetic energy is defined as: k 1 ui ui 1 (u '2 v'2 w'2 ) 2 2 The Reynolds number of these eddies Re0 u0l0/ is therefore large (comparable to Re) and the direct effects of viscosity on these eddies are negligibly small.m.

Integral scale • We can derive an estimate of the lengthscale l0 of the larger eddies based on the following: – Eddies of size l0 have a characteristic velocity u0 and timescale t0 l0/u0 – Their characteristic velocity u0u(l0) is on the order of the r.m.s. This lengthscale is usually referred to as the integral scale of turbulence. turbulence intensity u’ (2k/3)1/2 – Assume that energy of eddy with velocity scale u0 is dissipated in time t0 • We can then derive the following equation for this length scale: l0 k 3/ 2 • Here. The proportionality constant is of the order one. • The Reynolds number associated with these large eddies is referred to as the turbulence Reynolds number ReL. (m2/s3) is the energy dissipation rate. which is defined as: Re L k 1/ 2l0 k2 5 .

6 . • At these small scales. transferring their energy to somewhat smaller eddies.Energy transfer • The large eddies are unstable and break up. • This energy cascade – in which energy is transferred to successively smaller and smaller eddies – continues until the Reynolds number Re(l) u(l)l/ is sufficiently small that the eddy motion is stable. • These smaller eddies undergo a similar break-up process and transfer their energy to yet smaller eddies. the kinetic energy of turbulence is converted into heat. and molecular viscosity is effective in dissipating the kinetic energy.

And so on to viscosity in the molecular sense.” Cambridge University Press. 1922) summarized this in the following often cited verse: Big whirls have little whirls Which feed on their velocity.F.Richardson • L. Richardson (“Weather Prediction by Numerical Process. And little whirls have lesser whirls. 7 .

• These eddies have energy of order u02 and timescale t0 =l0/u0 so the rate of transfer of energy can be supposed to scale as u02/t0= u03 /l0 • Consequently. consistent with experimental observations in free shear flows. 8 . therefore by the first process in the sequence. • The rate of dissipation is determined. this picture of the energy cascade indicates that is proportional to u03/l0 independent of (at high Reynolds numbers). which is the transfer of energy from the largest eddies.Dissipation • Note that dissipation takes place at the end of the sequence of processes.

• These and others are answered by Kolmogorov‟s theory of turbulence (1941. decrease. do the characteristic velocity and timescales u(l) and t(l) increase. • Kolmogorov‟s theory is based on three important hypotheses combined with dimensional arguments and experimental observations. or stay the same? The assumed decrease of the Reynolds number u0l0/ by itself is not sufficient to determine these trends. see Pope (2000)). 9 . – What is the size of the smallest eddies that are responsible for dissipating the energy? – As l decreases.Kolmogorov‟s theory • Many questions remain unanswered.

For many high Reynolds number flows lEI can be estimated as lEI l0/6. the small-scale turbulent motions (l << l0) are statistically isotropic. • Here. For isotropic turbulence the eddies also behave the same in all directions: u '2 v '2 w '2 • Kolmogorov argued that the directional biases of the large scales are lost in the chaotic scale-reduction process as energy is transferred to successively smaller eddies. • lEI is the length scale that forms the demarcation between the large scale anisotropic eddies (l>lEI) and the small scale isotropic eddies (l<lEI).Kolmogorov‟s hypothesis of local isotropy • For homogenous turbulence. the turbulent kinetic energy k is the same everywhere. • Hence Kolmogorov‟s hypothesis of local isotropy states that at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers. 10 . the term local isotropy means isotropy at small scales. Large scale turbulence may still be anisotropic.

the statistics of the small scale motions (l<lEI) have a universal form that is uniquely determined by and . the statistics of the small-scale motions are universal: they are similar in every high Reynolds number turbulent flow. • Kolmogorov‟s first similarity hypothesis states that in every turbulent flow at sufficiently high Reynolds number. • As a result. 11 . which is related to the kinematic viscosity . • These small scale eddies depend on the rate TEI at which they receive energy from the larger scales (which is approximately equal to the dissipation rate ) and the viscous dissipation. independent of the mean flow field and the boundary conditions.Kolmogorov‟s first similarity hypothesis • Kolmogorov also argued that not only does the directional information get lost as the energy passes down the cascade. but that all information about the geometry of the eddies gets lost also.

• Note that the fact that the Kolmogorov Reynolds number Re of the small eddies is 1.Kolmogorov scales • Given the two parameters and we can form the following unique length. and time scales: length scale : ( 3 / )1/ 4 velocity scale : u ( )1/ 4 time scale : t ( / )1/ 2 (u / ) 1/ t Re u / 1 • These scales are indicative of the smallest eddies present in the flow. velocity. the scale at which the energy is dissipated. 12 . is consistent with the notion that the cascade proceeds to smaller and smaller scales until the Reynolds number is small enough for dissipation to be effective.

the timescales l/u(l) are small compared to l0/u0 so that the small eddies can adapt quickly to maintain dynamic equilibrium with the energy transfer rate TEI imposed by the large eddies. • On these scales all high Reynolds number flow fields are statistically identical if the flow fields are scaled by the Kolmogorov scales. • In this range. 14 .Universal equilibrium range • The size range (l<lEI) is referred to as the universal equilibrium range.

the velocity and timescales of the smallest eddies are small compared to those of the largest eddies. at high Reynolds numbers. at high Reynolds number there will be a range of intermediate scales l which is small compared to l0 and large compared with . / l0 ~ Re L 3/ 4 u / u0 ~ Re L 1/ 4 t / t 0 ~ Re L 1/ 2 • As expected. • Since /l0 decreases with increasing Reynolds number.Ratio between large and small scales • When we use the relationship l0 ~ k3/2/ and substitute it in the equations for the Kolmogorov scales. we can calculate the ratios between the small scale and large scale eddies. 15 .

they will not be affected by the viscosity .Kolmogorov‟s second similarity hypothesis • Because the Reynolds number of the intermediate scales l is relatively large. • We introduce a new length scale lDI. the statistics of the motions of scale l in the range l0 >> l >> have a universal form that is uniquely determined by independent of . (with lDI 60 for many turbulent high Reynolds number flows) so that this range can be written as lEI > l > lDI • This length scale splits the universal equilibrium range into two subranges: – The inertial subrange (lEI > l > lDI) where motions are determined by inertial effects and viscous effects are negligible. 16 . Kolmogorov‟s second similarity hypothesis states that in every turbulent flow at sufficiently high Reynolds number. • Based on that. – The dissipation range (l < lDI) where motions experience viscous effects.

which is therefore called the energycontaining range. • The suffixes EI and DI indicate that lEI is the demarcation line between energy (E) and inertial (I) ranges. as lDI is that between the dissipation (D) and inertial (I) ranges.Eddy sizes • The bulk of the energy is contained in the larger eddies in the size range lEI = l0/6 < l < 6l0. Universal equilibrium range Energy containing range Dissipation range Inertial subrange Kolmogorov length scale lDI Taylor microscale lEI l0 L 21 Integral length scale .

Taylor scales • The eddy size in the inertial subrange is given by the Taylor microscale : (10 k / )1/ 2 • A commonly used quantity in the characterization of turbulence is the Taylor-scale Reynolds number R. • This is based on the length scale and the corresponding velocity scale: R u ' / • R can be related to the turbulence Reynolds number as follows: R 20 3 Re L 1/ 2 22 .

• Under the equilibrium conditions in the inertial subrange this is equal to the dissipation rate .Energy transfer rate • The rate at which energy is transferred from the larger scales to the smaller scales is T(l). and is proportional to u(l)2/t. Dissipation Production P T(l) Transfer of energy to successively smaller scales lDI Inertial subrange lEI Dissipation range l0 Energy containing range L 23 .

The different ranges can be shown as a function of wavenumber.Wavenumbers • • • The wavenumber is defined as = 2/l. The wavenumber can also be made non-dimensional by multiplying it with the Kolmogorov length scale to result in the commonly used dimensionless group ( ). Universal equilibrium range Energy containing range Inertial subrange Dissipation range 0 = 2/l0 EI = 2/lEI Non dimensional form DI = 2/lDI = 2/ 0 = 2/l0 EI = 2/lEI DI = 2/lDI = 2 24 .

Energy spectrum • The turbulent kinetic energy k is given by: k 1 ui ui 1 (u '2 v'2 w'2 ) 2 2 • It remains to be determined how the turbulent kinetic energy is distributed among the eddies of different sizes. • This is usually done by considering the energy spectrum E(). defined as = 2/l. • By definition k is the integral of E() over all wavenumbers: k E ( )d 0 • The energy contained in eddies with wavenumbers between A B and B is then: k( A . B ) E ( )d A 25 . • Here E() is the energy contained in eddies of size l and wavenumber .

C is the universal Kolmogorov constant. [ E ( )] [k ] /[ ] m3 s 2 Dimensional analysis : [ 2 / 3 5 / 3 ] m3 s 2 E ( ) 2 / 3 5 / 3 E ( ) C 2 / 3 5 / 3 • The last equation describes the famous Kolmogorov –5/3 spectrum. which experimentally was determined to be C = 1. 26 . • We can then perform the following dimensional analysis: [k ] m 2 s 2 . [ ] m 2 s 3 . • According to the second similarity hypothesis E() will solely depend on and . [ ] m 1 .E() in inertial subrange • We will develop an equation for E() in the inertial subrange.5.

We will not discuss the theory behind them here. • The full spectrum is given by: E ( ) C 2 / 3 5 / 3 f L f • Will not discuss fL and f today.Full spectrum E() • Model equations for E() in the production range and dissipation range have been developed. log E() Energy containing range Inertial subrange log Dissipation range 27 .

• It is. – E() is made dimensionless as E()/( u2) • Based on integral scale: – Measure of length scale becomes (l0 ).. and k the full spectrum can now be calculated based on these equations. the normalized spectrum then has only one adjustable parameter: R.k). – E() is made dimensionless as E()/(k l0) • Instead of having three adjustable parameters (. .Normalized spectrum • For given values of . • Based on Kolmogorov scale: – Measure of length scale becomes ( ). 29 . however common to normalize the spectrum in one of two ways: based on the Kolmogorov scales or based on the integral length scale.

The normalized energy spectrum for R = 500 E ( ) u2 slope –5/3 slope 2 30 .

The energy spectrum as a function of R E ( ) u2 1000 300 100 R=30 31 .

The energy spectrum as a function of R E ( ) k l0 R=30 100 300 1000 l0 32 .

It is only valid for u’/U << 1. page 235. 33 . It is common to measure one velocity component at one point over a certain period of time and convert the time signal to a spatial signal using x = Ut with U being the time averaged velocity. This is commonly referred to as Taylor’s hypothesis of frozen turbulence. The number at the end of the reference denotes the value of R for which the measurements were done. Determination of the spectrum requires simultaneous measurements of all velocity components at multiple points.Measurements of spectra The figure shows experimentally measured one dimensional spectra (one velocity component was measured only. which is usually not possible. which is not always the case. as indicated by the “1” and “11” subscripts). Spectrum measurements remain a challenging field of research. Source: Pope.

• The conclusion is that most of the energy (~80%) is contained in eddies of length scale lEI = l0/6 < l < 6l0. we can derive which length scales contain most of the turbulent kinetic energy in the flow. • The derivation will not be reproduced here.Energy containing range • From the energy spectrum. 34 .

typically the Kolmogorov velocity scale. • This question can be answered by constructing a dissipation rate spectrum D(). 37 . The integral of D() over the full wavelength range is by definition the energy dissipation rate : D( )d 0 • The unit of D() is m3/s3 and it can thus be normalized with a velocity scale cubed. The question remains.The dissipation rate spectrum • We now know which eddies contain most of the energy. so does the normalized D() depend only on R. • Just as the normalized E() only depended on R. which eddies exactly dissipate the energy.

2 1. ) 1. 0.4 1.0 1.0 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.4 1.8 1.4 The normalized dissipation rate spectrum (solid line) and cumulative dissipation rate (dashed line) for R = 600.8 1.6 1.8 0.6 0.Dissipation rate spectrum D ( ) 3 u (0.2 1.0 0 0.6 50 20 10 5 / 38 .2 0.

39 .Dissipation range • The dissipation rate spectrum can be integrated to show that most of the dissipation (~90%) occurs in eddies of length scales lDI/ = 60 > l/ > 8. and that once eddies enter the inertial subrange it takes only about t/10 before the energy is being dissipated. • This means that most of the dissipation occurs at scales that are larger than the Kolmogorov scale . • How long does it take for a large scale eddy to break up and be dissipated? The spectra can be further analyzed to show that eddies spend about 90% of their total lifetime t=k/ in the production range. This time t/10 is also referred to as the cascade timescale. The Kolmogorov scale should be interpreted as a measure of the smallest eddies that are present in a turbulent flow at high Reynolds numbers.

Intermittency • Neither k nor are constant in time or space. 40 . sometimes by orders of magnitude. • Within a turbulent flow field. The peak values of relative to the mean tend to increase with Reynolds number. This is called intermittency. • Also. Peak values may be of the order of 15 times the average in laboratory scale flows and 50 times the average in atmospheric flows. at a given point in space the instantaneous values of may vary in time. k and may vary widely in space.

• The turbulence and Taylor Reynolds numbers can be related as 1/ 2 20 follows: R 3 Re L 41 .Summary – Reynolds numbers • The following Reynolds numbers have been defined: Re UL / – Flow Reynolds number: 2 – Turbulence Reynolds number: Re L k / – Taylor Reynolds number: R u ' / – Kolmogorov Reynolds number: Re u / 1 • The flow Reynolds number is on the order of one to ten times the turbulence Reynolds number.

• The Taylor microscale is a measure of the size of the eddies in 1/ 2 the inertial subrange: (10 k / ) • The Kolmogorov microscale is the size of the smallest eddies 3 1/ 4 present in the flow: ( / ) • The length scales can be related as follows: / l0 / 10 Re1/ 2 L 10 Re1/ 4 L 1/ 10 2 / 3 l0 3 / l0 Re3/ 4 L 42 .Summary – length scales • The integral length scale is a measure of the large scale eddies in 3/ 2 the production range: l0 k / The proportionality constant is of the order one.

Validity of Kolmogorov‟s theory • Kolmogorov‟s theory is an asymptotic theory: it has been shown to work well in the limit of very high Reynolds numbers. • Kolmogorov‟s theory assumes that the energy cascade is one way: from large eddies to small eddies. E. • The exact shape of the normalized spectra may deviate from Kolmogorov‟s model spectra for intermediate Reynolds numbers.g. the exponent of E() ~ -p in the inertial subrange is often measured to be p ~ 1. Experimental studies have shown that energy is also transferred from smaller scales to larger scales (a process called backscatter). and the theory continues to be refined. • Research into the fundamental aspects of turbulence continues. • The theory assumes that turbulence at high Reynolds numbers is completely random. large scale coherent structures may form. albeit at a much lower rate and the dominant energy transfer is indeed from large to small. 43 . In practice. for many laboratory scale flows which have Reynolds numbers on the order of 10.5 instead of 5/3 (~1.67). both experimentally and by means of large computer simulations using DNS (direct numerical simulation).000 with R ~ 250.

Sources • Pope. “Turbulent Flows. “A First Course in Turbulence. 44 . • Tennekes H. Stephen B. Lumley J.L.” The MIT Press 1972.” Cambridge University Press 2000..

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