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The Cardiovascular System: The Heart: Part A
Marieb and Hoehn, 8th ed.

Dr. Saheba

Dr. Saheba

Heart Anatomy
 Size of a fist  Location
 In the mediastinum  between second rib and fifth intercostal space  superior surface of diaphragm  Two-thirds to the left of the midsternal line  Anterior to the vertebral column, posterior to

the sternum  Enclosed in pericardium, a double-walled sac

Animation: Rotatable heart

Dr. Saheba

Superior vena cava Pulmonary trunk Aorta Parietal pleura (cut)

Left lung
Pericardium (cut) Apex of heart


Figure 18.1c 3

lines the internal surface of the 2. anchors. Deep two-layered serous pericardium fibrous pericardium  Visceral layer (epicardium) on external surface of the heart  Separated by fluid-filled pericardial cavity to decreases friction 4 . Pericardium • Protects. Saheba 1.Dr. and prevents Superficial fibrous pericardium overfilling  Parietal layer .

Dr. Saheba Layers of the Heart Wall 1. Epicardium—visceral layer of the serous pericardium 5 .

Saheba Layers of the Heart Wall 2.muscle fibers 2.Dr.continuous with endothelial lining of blood vessels Cardiac muscle bundles 6 . Anchors . Supports . Endocardium .great vessels and valves 3. Myocardium Spiral bundles of cardiac muscle cells  Fibrous skeleton of the heart connective tissue 1.spread of action potentials  3. Limits .

Two atria  Separated internally by the interatrial septum  Coronary sulcus (atrioventricular groove) encircles the junction of the atria and ventricles  Auricles increase atrial volume 2. Two ventricles  Separated by the interventricular septum  Anterior and posterior interventricular sulci mark the position of the septum externally 7 . Saheba Chambers 4 chambers 1.Dr.

Dr. Saheba Brachiocephalic trunk Superior vena cava Right pulmonary artery Ascending aorta Pulmonary trunk Left common carotid artery Left subclavian artery Aortic arch Ligamentum arteriosum Left pulmonary artery Left pulmonary veins Auricle of left atrium Circumflex artery Left coronary artery (in coronary sulcus) Left ventricle Great cardiac vein Right pulmonary veins Right atrium Right coronary artery (in coronary sulcus) Anterior cardiac vein Right ventricle Right marginal artery Small cardiac vein Inferior vena cava (b) Anterior view Anterior interventricular artery (in anterior interventricular sulcus) Apex Figure 18.4b 8 .

left pulmonary veins 9 . Vessels entering left atrium 1. Inferior vena cava 3. Coronary sinus B. Right and 2. Superior vena cava 2. Saheba Atria: The Receiving Chambers  Walls are ridged by pectinate muscles A. Vessels entering right atrium 1.Dr.

Walls are ridged by trabeculae carneae 2. Vessel leaving the right ventricle  Pulmonary trunk 4. Saheba Ventricles: Discharge Blood 1. Vessel leaving the left ventricle  Aorta 10 . Papillary muscles project into the ventricular cavities 3.Dr.

Dr.4e 11 . Saheba Aorta Superior vena cava Right pulmonary artery Pulmonary trunk Right atrium Right pulmonary veins Fossa ovalis Pectinate muscles Tricuspid valve Right ventricle Chordae tendineae Trabeculae carneae Inferior vena cava Left pulmonary artery Left atrium Left pulmonary veins Mitral (bicuspid) valve Aortic valve Pulmonary valve Left ventricle Papillary muscle Interventricular septum Epicardium Myocardium Endocardium (e) Frontal section Figure 18.

Dr.Pathway of Blood The heart is two side-by-side pumps 1. Right side .for the pulmonary circuit  blood to and from the lungs blood to and from all body tissues 2. Left side .for the systemic circuit  12 . Saheba Heart .

CO2-rich blood Capillary beds of all body tissues where gas exchange occurs Figure 18. CO2-poor blood Oxygen-poor. Saheba Capillary beds of lungs where gas exchange occurs Pulmonary veins Aorta and branches Left atrium Right atrium Left ventricle Heart Systemic Circuit Pulmonary Circuit Pulmonary arteries Venae cavae Right ventricle Oxygen-rich.5 13 .Dr.

Saheba Blood Through the Heart  Right atrium  tricuspid valve  right ventricle  Right ventricle  pulmonary semilunar valve  pulmonary trunk  pulmonary arteries  lungs  Lungs  pulmonary veins  left atrium  Left atrium  bicuspid valve  left ventricle  Left ventricle  aortic semilunar valve  aorta  Aorta  systemic circulation PLAY Animation: Rotatable heart (sectioned) 14 .Dr.

Dr. Saheba Blood Through the Heart  Equal volumes of blood . low-pressure circulation  Systemic circuit blood – much resistance in the long pathways  Anatomy of the ventricles reflects these differences 15 .to the pulmonary and systemic circuits  Pulmonary circuit is: a short.

Dr.6 16 . Saheba Left ventricle Right ventricle Interventricular septum Figure 18.

Dr. Saheba Coronary Circulation  Supply .to the heart muscle itself  Arterial supply varies considerably and contains many anastomoses (junctions) among branches  Collateral routes provide additional routes for blood delivery 17 .

Dr. and 3. anterior cardiac. circumflex. marginal. Right coronary and 2. 2. 4. Small cardiac. great cardiac veins 18 . left coronary (in atrioventricular groove). 3. Saheba Coronary Circulation  Arteries 1. anterior interventricular arteries  Veins 1. and 5.

Saheba Superior vena cava Anastomosis (junction of vessels) Right atrium Aorta Pulmonary trunk Left atrium Left coronary artery Circumflex artery Right coronary Left artery ventricle Right ventricle Anterior Right interventricular marginal Posterior artery artery interventricular artery (a) The major coronary arteries Figure 18.Dr.7a 19 .

7b 20 .Dr. Saheba Superior vena cava Anterior cardiac veins Great cardiac vein Coronary sinus Small cardiac vein Middle cardiac vein (b) The major cardiac veins Figure 18.

4d 21 . Saheba Aorta Left pulmonary artery Left pulmonary veins Auricle of left atrium Left atrium Great cardiac vein Posterior vein of left ventricle Left ventricle Apex Superior vena cava Right pulmonary artery Right pulmonary veins Right atrium Inferior vena cava Coronary sinus Right coronary artery (in coronary sulcus) Posterior interventricular artery (in posterior interventricular sulcus) Middle cardiac vein Right ventricle (d) Posterior surface view Figure 18.Dr.

Dr. Saheba Homeostatic Imbalances  Angina pectoris  Thoracic pain caused by a fleeting deficiency in blood delivery to the myocardium  Cells are weakened  Myocardial infarction (heart attack)  Prolonged coronary blockage  Areas of cell death are repaired with noncontractile scar tissue 22 .

Tricuspid valve (right) 3. Saheba Heart Valves  Ensure unidirectional blood flow through the heart Atrioventricular (AV) valves  Prevent backflow into the atria when ventricles contract 2. 4. Aortic semilunar valve ii. Mitral valve (left)  Chordae tendineae anchor AV valve cusps to papillary muscles 1. Pulmonary semilunar valve 23 . Semilunar (SL) valves  Prevent backflow into the ventricles when ventricles relax i.Dr.

Saheba Myocardium Pulmonary valve Aortic valve Tricuspid Area of cutaway (right atrioventricular) Mitral valve valve Tricuspid valve Mitral (left atrioventricular) valve Aortic valve Pulmonary valve Pulmonary valve Aortic valve Area of cutaway Mitral valve Tricuspid valve Anterior Myocardium Tricuspid (right atrioventricular) valve Mitral (left atrioventricular) valve Aortic valve (b) Pulmonary valve Fibrous skeleton (a) Figure 18.8a 24 .Dr.

8b 25 (b) .Dr. Saheba Myocardium Tricuspid (right atrioventricular) valve Mitral (left atrioventricular) valve Aortic valve Pulmonary valve Pulmonary valve Aortic valve Area of cutaway Mitral valve Tricuspid valve Figure 18.

Dr. Saheba Pulmonary valve Aortic valve Area of cutaway Mitral valve Tricuspid valve Chordae tendineae attached to tricuspid valve flap (c) Papillary muscle Figure 18.8c 26 .

8d 27 .Dr. Saheba Opening of inferior vena cava Tricuspid valve Myocardium of right ventricle Mitral valve Chordae tendineae Myocardium of left ventricle Papillary muscles (d) Interventricular septum Pulmonary valve Aortic valve Area of cutaway Mitral valve Tricuspid valve Figure 18.

2 Atrioventricular valves close. forcing additional blood into ventricles. 3 Atria contract. 3 Papillary muscles contract and chordae tendineae tighten. (a) AV valves open. 2 As ventricles fill. atrioventricular valves are forced open. putting pressure against atrioventricular valves.9 28 . atrial pressure less than ventricular pressure Figure 18. atrial pressure greater than ventricular pressure Atrium 1 Ventricles contract. preventing valve flaps from everting into atria.Dr. Cusps of atrioventricular valve (closed) Blood in ventricle (b) AV valves closed. forcing blood against atrioventricular valve cusps. Direction of blood flow Atrium Cusp of atrioventricular valve (open) Chordae tendineae Ventricle Papillary muscle atrioventricular valve flaps hang limply into ventricles. Saheba 1 Blood returning to the heart fills atria.

forcing them open. (a) Semilunar valves open As ventricles relax and intraventricular pressure falls. filling the cusps of semilunar valves and forcing them to close. blood flows back from arteries. blood is pushed up against semilunar valves. (b) Semilunar valves closed Figure 18.Dr. Saheba Aorta Pulmonary trunk As ventricles contract and intraventricular pressure rises.10 29 .

SR is simpler than in skeletal muscle  Numerous large mitochondria (25–35% of cell volume) 30 .striated.Dr. Saheba Microscopic Anatomy of Cardiac Muscle  Cardiac muscle cells are . branched. short. fat. and interconnected  Connective tissue (endomysium) connects to the fibrous skeleton  T tubules are wide but less numerous.

11a 31 . Saheba Nucleus Intercalated discs Cardiac muscle cell Gap junctions Desmosomes (a) Figure 18.Dr.

Dr. electrically couple adjacent cells  Heart muscle behaves as a functional syncytium 32 . Saheba Microscopic Anatomy of Cardiac Muscle  Intercalated discs: junctions between cells anchor cardiac cells  Desmosomes prevent cells from separating during contraction  Gap junctions allow ions to pass.

Dr. Saheba Cardiac muscle cell Intercalated disc Mitochondrion Nucleus T tubule Mitochondrion Sarcoplasmic reticulum Z disc Nucleus Sarcolemma (b) I band A band I band Figure 18.11b 33 .