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EBB424E Dr Zainovia Lockman

Principle of Diode LASER
Laser 2

What is the word LASER stands for?
Light amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

What is Population Inversion?

Laser 2. Lecture Content: Principle of the laser diodes (semiconducting laser)  important Heterostructure laser diodes Materials requirements and materials selections Light emitters for fibre optics communications .

Principle of Laser Diode .

O. photon of the same energy hυ will be emitted Resulting in 2 photons coming out of the system Photons are amplified – one incoming photon resulting . spontaneous (random incoming photon with In stimulated emission.Optoelectronics down Hall)E1.Stimulated Emission E2 hυ hυ E2 h υ In E2 hυ Out hυ E1 E1 E1 (a) Absorption (b) Spontaneous emission (c) Stimulated emission Absorption. anphoton) emission and stimulated emission. energy hυ stimulates the emission process by inducing © 1999 S. 2 While moving down to E1. in E to transit (Prentice to electronsKasap.

to create population inversion. a large amount of energy is required to excite atoms to E2 The excitation process of atoms so N2 > N2 is called pumping It is difficult to attain pumping when using two-level-system. Require 3-level system instead N2> N1 More atoms here E2 N2 N1 E1 There level system E3 E2 E1 .Population Inversion Non equilibrium distribution of atoms among the various energy level atomic system To induce more atoms in E2.e. i.

atoms from E2 will not decay to E1 rapidly Condition where there are a lot of atoms in E2 population inversion achieved! i.Principles of Laser E hυ 13 E Metastable state 2 3 E hυ32 E 3 3 E 3 E 2 E 2 E IN 2 OUT hυ 2 1 E hυ 21 E Coherent photons E (a) 1 1 E 1 1 (b) (c) (d) In actual case. . Exciting atoms from E1 to E3 optical pumping Atoms from E3 decays rapidly to E2 emitting hυ3 If E2 is a long lived state. between E2 and E1. excite atoms from E1 to E3.e. .

a random photon resulted which will induce stimulated photon from the neighbouring atoms The photons from the neighbouring atoms will stimulate their neighbours and form avalanche of photons.Coherent Photons Production (explanation of (d)) When one atom in E2 decays spontaneously. Large collection of coherent photons resulted. .

In other word. the p-n junction must be heavily doped. the Fermi level of the n-side will lies in the conduction band whereas the Fermi level in the p-region will lie in the valance band. the p and n materials must be degenerately doped By degenerated doping. .Laser Diode Principle Consider a p-n junction In order to design a laser diode.

eVo •Forward bias. eV> Eg •Built in potential diminished to zero •Electrons and holes can diffuse V .Diode Laser Operation p+ E c E E Ev Fp p+ g Holes in VB Electrons eV o E c E g Inversion region n+ E E Fn c eV E Fp (a) E v Junction n+ E Electrons in CB E Fn c (b) •P-n junction must be degenerately doped. •No bias. •Fermi level in valance band (p) and conduction band (n). built n potential.

Electrons can now flow to the p-side Holes can now flow to the n-side . eVo to almost zero.Application of Forward Bias Suppose that the degenerately doped p-n junction is forward biased by a voltage greater than the band gap. eV > Eg The separation between EFn and EFp is now the applied potential energy The applied voltage diminished the built-in potential barrier.

photon energy. Holes in the VB are empty states.O.Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) .Population Inversion in Diode Laser Energy Optical gain EF n − EF p CB EF n Ec eV Ev EF p Holes in VB = Empty states Electrons in CB 0 hυ Eg At T > 0 At T = 0 VB Optical absorption Density of states (a) (b) (a) The density of states and energy distribution of electrons and holes in the conduction and valence bands respectively at T ≈ 0 in the SCL under forward bias such that E Fn − E Fp > E g. (b) Gain vs. Kasap. © 1999 S.

Population Inversion in Diode Laser More electrons in EFn eV Eg EFp EFn-EfP = eV eV > Eg eV = forward bias voltage Fwd Diode current pumping  injection VB CB the conduction band near EC Electrons in CB Than electrons in Holes in VB the valance band near EV There is therefore a population inversion between energies near EC and near EV around the junction. This only achieved when degenerately doped p-n junction is forward bias with .

Therefore. the incoming photon stimulates emission than absorption The active region is then said to have ‘optical gain’ since the incoming photon has the ability to cause emission rather than being absorbed. .The Lasing Action The population inversion region is a layer along the junction  also call inversion layer or active region Now consider a photon with E = Eg Obviously this photon can not excite electrons from EV since there is NO electrons there However the photon CAN STIMULATE electron to fall down from CB to VB.

Pumping Mechanism in Laser Diode It is obvious that the population inversion between energies near EC and those near EV occurs by injection of large charge carrier across the junction by forward biasing the junction. Therefore the pumping mechanism is FORWARD DIODE CURRENT  Injection pumping .

Optical Gain (not absorb) Achieved by population inversion Optical Feedback Achieved by device configuration Needed to increase the total optical amplification by making photons pass through the gain region multiple times Insert 2 mirrors at each end of laser This is term an oscillator cavity or Fabry Perot cavity Mirrors are partly transmitted and party reflected .For Successful Lasing Action: 1. 1.

Reflection of Photons Back and Forth. Higher Gain Fabry-Parrot Cavity The photons vibrates to and forth with resonant wavelength .

Laser Gain + Feedback = laser .

. The high refractive index normally ensure that the reflectance at the air/material interface is sufficiently high The diode is often cleaved at one end and roughened at the other end. This results in the radiation generated within the active region spread out into the surrounding lossy GaAs.Optical Feedback In diode laser it is not necessary to use external mirrors to provide positive feedback. In the a mode volume. and there is a confinement of the radiation within a small region called the mode volume. This produces a dielectric waveguide similar to the heterojunctuction LED. there are additional carriers present which increases the refractive index of the material as compared to the surrounding material. However the difference is too small to be an efficient waveguide.

What is the pumping mechanism in a laser diode and explain in term of the p-n junction.Typical Exam Questions!! What is laser diode? Describe the principle of a laser diode Give some examples of applications of laser diode. .

Laser Diode Materials  Basically all of the materials are similar to that of LED.  UV. Vis and IR Laser can be produced by materials as discussed in the LED lectures .

Materials for LED and Laser Diodes .summary .

Optical Power in Laser is Very High due to Optical Feedback and Higher Forward Bias Current. Threshold current density .

Direct Gap Diode Laser Direct band gap  high probability of electrons-holes recombination  radiatively The recombination radiation may interact with the holes in the valance band and being absorbed or interact with the electrons in the conduction band thereby stimulating the production of further photons of the same frequency  stimulated emission .

Materials Available .

Technologically Important Material for Blue Laser .

GaN and AlN are fairly well lattice-matched to SiC substrates. SiC has substrate is better as it can be doped (dopability) and high thermal conductivity relative to more commonly used Al2O3 substrates. InN. AlN and GaN can be used for high temperature application due to wide bandgaps and low intrinsic carrier concentrations. .InGaN and AlGaN InGaN and AlGaN have been produced over the entire composition range between their component binaries. GaN. AlN InAlN is less explored.

Blue/Violet Laser .

Blue Laser GaN used .