(Reference Text Book)
A Signal: is a function that specifies how a
specific variable changes versus an
independent variable such as time. Usually
represented as an XY plot.
Analog vs. Digital signals:
Analog signals are signals with magnitudes
that may take any value in a specific rang
Digital signals have amplitudes that take only
a finite number of values.
Continuoustime vs. discretetime:
Continuoustime signals have their
magnitudes defined for all values of t. They
may be analog or digital.
Discretetime signals have their magnitudes
defined at specific instants of time only. They
may be analog or digital.
Periodic vs. aperiodic signals:
Periodic signals are signals constructed from
a shape that repeats itself regularly after a
specific amount of time T
0
, that is:
f(t) = f (t+nT
0
) for all integer n
Aperiodic signals do not repeat regularly.
2
 ( ) 
f
E f t dt
·
÷·
=
}
/ 2
2
/ 2
1
lim  ( ) 
T
f
T
T
P f t dt
T
÷·
÷
=
}
}
+
=
0
0
2
 ) ( 
1
t T
t
f Periodic
dt t f
T
P
Energy Signals: an energy signal is a signal
with finite energy and zero average power
(0 ≤ E < ·, P = 0)
Power Signals: a power signal is a signal with
infinite energy but finite average power
(0 < P < ·, E ÷ ·).
A signal cannot be both an energy and power signal.
A signal may be neither energy nor power signal.
All periodic signals are power signals (but not all non–
periodic signals are energy signals).
Any signal f that has limited amplitude (f < ·) and is
time limited (f = 0 for t > t0) is an energy signal.
The square root of the average power of a power signal
is called the RMS value.
It is a Power signal
( ) 3sin(2 ), a t t t t = ÷·< < ·
 
2 2
 ( )   3sin(2 ) 
1
9 1 cos(4 )
2
1
9 9 cos(4 )
2
J
a
E a t dt t dt
t dt
dt t dt
t
t
t
· ·
÷· ÷·
·
÷·
· ·
÷· ÷·
= =
= ÷
= ÷
= ·
} }
}
} }
 
1 1
2 2
0 0
1
0
0 1
0 0
1
0
1
 ( )   3sin(2 ) 
1
1
9 1 cos(4 )
2
1
9 9 cos(4 )
2
9 9
sin(4 )
2 4
9
W
2
a
P a t dt t dt
t dt
dt t dt
t
t
t
t
t
t
= =
= ÷
= ÷
(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
=
} }
}
} }
1
2
8
It is an energy signal
2 
( ) 5 ,
t
b t e t
÷
= ÷· < < ·
2
2 2 
0
4 4
0
0
4 4
0
 ( )  5
25 25
25 25
4 4
25 25 50
J
4 4 4
t
b
t t
t t
E b t dt e dt
e dt e dt
e e
· ·
÷
÷· ÷·
·
÷
÷·
·
÷
÷·
= =
= +
( ( = +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
= + =
} }
} }
/ 2 / 2
2
2 2 
/ 2 / 2
0 / 2
4 4
/ 2 0
0 / 2
4 4
/ 2 0
2 2
1 1
lim  ( )  lim 5
1 1
25 lim 25 lim
25 1 25 1
lim lim
4 4
25 1 25 1
lim 1 lim 1
4 4
0 0 0
T T
t
b
T T
T T
T
t t
T T
T
T
t t
T T T
T T
T T
P b t dt e dt
T T
e dt e dt
T T
e e
T T
e e
T T
÷
÷· ÷·
÷ ÷
÷
÷· ÷·
÷
÷
÷ ÷· ÷·
÷ ÷
÷· ÷·
= =
= +
( ( = +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( ( = ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
= + =
} }
} }
Time Shifting: given the signal f(t), the signal
f(t–t0) is a timeshifted version of f(t) that is
shifted to the left if t0 is positive and to the
right if t0 is negative.
Magnitude Shifting:
Given the signal f(t), the signal c +f(t) is a
magnitudeshifted version of f(t) that is
shifted up if c is positive and shifted down if
c is negative.
Time Scaling and Time Inversion: Given f(t),
the signal f(a·t) is a timescaled version of
f(t), where a is a constant, such that f(a·t) is
an expanded version of f(t) if 0<a<1, and
f(a·t) is a compressed version of f(t) if a>1.
If a is negative, the signal f(a·t) is also a
timeinverted version of f(t).
Magnitude Scaling and Mag. Inversion:
Given f(t), the signal b·f(t) is a magnitude
scaled version of f(t), where b is a constant,
such that b·f(t) is an attenuated version of
f(t) if 0<b<1, and b·f(t) is an amplified
version of f(t) if b>1.
If b is negative, the signal b·f(t) is also a
magnitudeflipped version of f(t).
2
2
1
6
f(t)
Graphical Definition:
The rectangular pulse
shape approaches the
unit impulse function
as c approaches 0
(notice that the area
under the curve is
always equal to 1).
o(t)
t
1/c
÷c/2 c/2
c 0
Mathematical Definition:
The unit impulse function o(t) satisfies the
following conditions:
1. o(t) = 0 if t = 0,
2.
1 ) ( =
}
·
· ÷
dt t o
f(t)o(t) = f(0)o(t)
) (
) (
therefore, t
dt
t du
o =
) (
0 , 1
0 , 0
) ( t u
t
t
d
t
=
¹
´
¦
>
<
=
}
· ÷
t t o
0 0 0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f t t t f t t t o o ÷ = ÷
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
0 0 0 0
t f dt t t t f dt t t T f dt T t t f = ÷ = ÷ · = ÷ ·
} } }
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
o o o
) 0 ( ) ( ) ( f dt t t f = ·
}
·
· ÷
o
A signal g(t) in the interval
t1 s t s t1+T0 can be represented by
¿
·
=
+ + =
1
0 0 0
) sin( ) cos( ) (
n
n n
t n b t n a a t g e e
0 1 1
T t t t + s s
}
+
=
0 1
1
) (
1
0
0
T t
t
dt t g
T
a
}
+
=
0 1
1
) cos( ) (
2
0
0
T t
t
n
dt t n t g
T
a e
}
+
=
0 1
1
) sin( ) (
2
0
0
T t
t
n
dt t n t g
T
b e
T0 = 2t / e0
Or, in the compact form
If g(t) is even then bn = 0 for all n
If g(t) is odd then an=0 for all n.
¿
·
=
+ + =
1
0 0
) cos( ) (
n
n n
t n C C t g u e
;
2 2
n n n
b a C + =


.

\

÷
=
÷
n
n
n
a
b
1
tan u
0 1 1
T t t t + s s
C0 = a0
;
The frequency e0= 2t/T0 is called the
fundamental frequency and the multiple of this
frequency ne0 is called the nth harmonic.
FS of g(t) is equal to g(t) over the interval t1 s t
s t1+T0 only.
The FS for all t is a periodic function of period
T0 in which the segment of g(t) over the interval
t1 s t s t1+T0 repeats periodically.
If the function g(t) itself is periodic with period
T0 then the FS represents g(t) for all t.
Dn is related to Cn and un as
 Dn  is called the amplitude spectrum of the signal.
Z Dn is called the phase spectrum of the signal.
They provide a frequencydomain representation of the
signal.
¿ ¿
·
=
÷· =
·
÷· =
+ = =
) 0 (
0
0 0
) (
n
n
t jn
n
n
t jn
n
e D D e D t g
e e
dt e t g
T
D
T
t jn
n
}
÷
=
0
0
) (
1
0
e
n n n
C D D
2
1
    = =
÷
0 1 1
T t t t + s s
n n n
D D u = ÷Z = Z
÷