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# INTRODUCTION TO SIGNALS

(Reference Text Book)
 A Signal: is a function that specifies how a
specific variable changes versus an
independent variable such as time. Usually
represented as an X-Y plot.
 Analog vs. Digital signals:

 Analog signals are signals with magnitudes
that may take any value in a specific rang

 Digital signals have amplitudes that take only
a finite number of values.
 Continuous-time vs. discrete-time:

 Continuous-time signals have their
magnitudes defined for all values of t. They
may be analog or digital.

 Discrete-time signals have their magnitudes
defined at specific instants of time only. They
may be analog or digital.
 Periodic vs. aperiodic signals:
Periodic signals are signals constructed from
a shape that repeats itself regularly after a
specific amount of time T
0
, that is:
f(t) = f (t+nT
0
) for all integer n

Aperiodic signals do not repeat regularly.

2
| ( ) |
f
E f t dt
·
÷·
=
}
/ 2
2
/ 2
1
lim | ( ) |
T
f
T
T
P f t dt
T
÷·
÷
=
}
}
+
=
0
0
2
| ) ( |
1
t T
t
f Periodic
dt t f
T
P
 Energy Signals: an energy signal is a signal
with finite energy and zero average power
(0 ≤ E < ·, P = 0)
 Power Signals: a power signal is a signal with
infinite energy but finite average power
(0 < P < ·, E ÷ ·).
 A signal cannot be both an energy and power signal.

 A signal may be neither energy nor power signal.

 All periodic signals are power signals (but not all non–
periodic signals are energy signals).

 Any signal f that has limited amplitude (|f| < ·) and is
time limited (f = 0 for |t |> t0) is an energy signal.

 The square root of the average power of a power signal
is called the RMS value.

It is a Power signal
( ) 3sin(2 ), a t t t t = ÷·< < ·
| |
2 2
| ( ) | | 3sin(2 ) |
1
9 1 cos(4 )
2
1
9 9 cos(4 )
2
J
a
E a t dt t dt
t dt
dt t dt
t
t
t
· ·
÷· ÷·
·
÷·
· ·
÷· ÷·
= =
= ÷
= ÷
= ·
} }
}
} }
| |
1 1
2 2
0 0
1
0
0 1
0 0
1
0
1
| ( ) | | 3sin(2 ) |
1
1
9 1 cos(4 )
2
1
9 9 cos(4 )
2
9 9
sin(4 )
2 4
9
W
2
a
P a t dt t dt
t dt
dt t dt
t
t
t
t
t
t
= =
= ÷
= ÷
(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
=
} }
}
} }
1
2
8

It is an energy signal
2| |
( ) 5 ,
t
b t e t
÷
= ÷· < < ·
2
2 2| |
0
4 4
0
0
4 4
0
| ( ) | 5
25 25
25 25
4 4
25 25 50
J
4 4 4
t
b
t t
t t
E b t dt e dt
e dt e dt
e e
· ·
÷
÷· ÷·
·
÷
÷·
·
÷
÷·
= =
= +
( ( = +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
= + =
} }
} }
/ 2 / 2
2
2 2| |
/ 2 / 2
0 / 2
4 4
/ 2 0
0 / 2
4 4
/ 2 0
2 2
1 1
lim | ( ) | lim 5
1 1
25 lim 25 lim
25 1 25 1
lim lim
4 4
25 1 25 1
lim 1 lim 1
4 4
0 0 0
T T
t
b
T T
T T
T
t t
T T
T
T
t t
T T T
T T
T T
P b t dt e dt
T T
e dt e dt
T T
e e
T T
e e
T T
÷
÷· ÷·
÷ ÷
÷
÷· ÷·
÷
÷
÷ ÷· ÷·
÷ ÷
÷· ÷·
= =
= +
( ( = +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( ( = ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
= + =
} }
} }
 Time Shifting: given the signal f(t), the signal
f(t–t0) is a time-shifted version of f(t) that is
shifted to the left if t0 is positive and to the
right if t0 is negative.
 Magnitude Shifting:
Given the signal f(t), the signal c +f(t) is a
magnitude-shifted version of f(t) that is
shifted up if c is positive and shifted down if
c is negative.

 Time Scaling and Time Inversion: Given f(t),
the signal f(a·t) is a time-scaled version of
f(t), where a is a constant, such that f(a·t) is
an expanded version of f(t) if 0<|a|<1, and
f(a·t) is a compressed version of f(t) if |a|>1.
If a is negative, the signal f(a·t) is also a
time-inverted version of f(t).
 Magnitude Scaling and Mag. Inversion:
Given f(t), the signal b·f(t) is a magnitude-
scaled version of f(t), where b is a constant,
such that b·f(t) is an attenuated version of
f(t) if 0<|b|<1, and b·f(t) is an amplified
version of f(t) if |b|>1.
If b is negative, the signal b·f(t) is also a
magnitude-flipped version of f(t).
-2
2
-1
6
f(t)
 Graphical Definition:
The rectangular pulse
shape approaches the
unit impulse function
as c approaches 0
(notice that the area
under the curve is
always equal to 1).
o(t)
t
1/c
÷c/2 c/2
c 0
 Mathematical Definition:
The unit impulse function o(t) satisfies the
following conditions:

1. o(t) = 0 if t = 0,

2.

1 ) ( =
}
·
· ÷
dt t o
 f(t)o(t) = f(0)o(t)

) (
) (
therefore, t
dt
t du
o =
) (
0 , 1
0 , 0
) ( t u
t
t
d
t
=
¹
´
¦
>
<
=
}
· ÷
t t o
0 0 0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f t t t f t t t o o ÷ = ÷
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
0 0 0 0
t f dt t t t f dt t t T f dt T t t f = ÷ = ÷ · = ÷ ·
} } }
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
o o o
) 0 ( ) ( ) ( f dt t t f = ·
}
·
· ÷
o
 A signal g(t) in the interval
t1 s t s t1+T0 can be represented by
¿
·
=
+ + =
1
0 0 0
) sin( ) cos( ) (
n
n n
t n b t n a a t g e e
0 1 1
T t t t + s s
}
+
=
0 1
1
) (
1
0
0
T t
t
dt t g
T
a
}
+
=
0 1
1
) cos( ) (
2
0
0
T t
t
n
dt t n t g
T
a e
}
+
=
0 1
1
) sin( ) (
2
0
0
T t
t
n
dt t n t g
T
b e
T0 = 2t / e0
 Or, in the compact form

 If g(t) is even then bn = 0 for all n
 If g(t) is odd then an=0 for all n.

¿
·
=
+ + =
1
0 0
) cos( ) (
n
n n
t n C C t g u e
;
2 2
n n n
b a C + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
÷
n
n
n
a
b
1
tan u
0 1 1
T t t t + s s
C0 = a0

;
 The frequency e0= 2t/T0 is called the
fundamental frequency and the multiple of this
frequency ne0 is called the nth harmonic.
 FS of g(t) is equal to g(t) over the interval t1 s t
s t1+T0 only.
 The FS for all t is a periodic function of period
T0 in which the segment of g(t) over the interval
t1 s t s t1+T0 repeats periodically.
 If the function g(t) itself is periodic with period
T0 then the FS represents g(t) for all t.

Dn is related to Cn and un as

| Dn | is called the amplitude spectrum of the signal.
Z Dn is called the phase spectrum of the signal.
They provide a frequency-domain representation of the
signal.

¿ ¿
·
=
÷· =
·
÷· =
+ = =
) 0 (
0
0 0
) (
n
n
t jn
n
n
t jn
n
e D D e D t g
e e
dt e t g
T
D
T
t jn
n
}
÷
=
0
0
) (
1
0
e
n n n
C D D
2
1
| | | | = =
÷
0 1 1
T t t t + s s
n n n
D D u = ÷Z = Z
÷