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Chapter 6

Sampling & PCM
Advantages of Digital Communications
 Rugged: Can withstand channel noise and
distortion much better.
 Use of repeaters (travels as far as needed).
 Use of TDM
 Can be encrypted (Security and Privacy)
 Can be encoded for error correction (reliability).
 Easy to process, store and search.
Analog to Digital Conversion (A/D)
 In converting an analog signal to an equivalent
sequence of “0’s” and “1’s”, we go through three
processes:
 Sampling:
o converting continuous–time analog signals to discrete–time
analog signals.
 Quantization
o converting discrete–time analog signals to discrete–time
digital signals (finite set of amplitude levels).
 Coding
o Map each amplitude level to a binary sequence.
[1] Sampling: Mathematical Representation
 One sample of g(t) can be obtained from

 If we want to sample g(t) periodically every T
s
sec then we
can repeat this process periodically
0 0 0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
s
g t g t t t g t t t o o = · ÷ = · ÷
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ).
s
n
s
n
s s
n
g t g t t nT
g t t nT
g nT t nT
o
o
o
·
=÷·
·
=÷·
·
=÷·
= ÷
= · ÷
= · ÷
¿
¿
¿
Sampling: Time-Domain Plot
e
T
s
2T
s
3T
s
4T
s
5T
s
6T
s
÷6T
s
÷5T
s
÷4T
s
÷3T
s
÷2T
s
÷T
s
g(t)
e
T
s
2T
s
3T
s
4T
s
5T
s
6T
s
÷6T
s
÷5T
s
÷4T
s
÷3T
s
÷2T
s
÷T
s
g(t)
Sampling: Frequency-Domain Analysis (1/2)
0 1 2 3
1 2 3
( ) ( )
cos( ) cos(2 ) cos(3 )
sin( ) sin(2 ) sin(3 )
s
T s
n
s s s
s s s
t t nT
a a t a t a t
b t b t b t
o o
e e e
e e e
·
=÷·
= ÷
= + + + +
+ + + +
¿
2
s
s
T
t
e =
2 2
0
2 2
1 1 1
( ) ( )
s s
s
s s
T T
T
T T s s s
a t dt t dt
T T T
o o
÷ ÷
= = =
} }
2 2 2
0
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
( ) cos( ) ( ) cos( ) ( ) cos(0)
s s s
s
s s s
T T T
T s s
T T T s s s s
a t t dt t t dt t dt
T T T T
o e o e o
÷ ÷ ÷
= · = = =
} } }
2 2 2
0
2 2 2
2 2 2
( ) sin( ) ( ) sin( ) ( ) sin(0) 0
s s s
s
s s s
T T T
T s s
T T T s s s
b t t dt t t dt t dt
T T T
o e o e o
÷ ÷ ÷
= · = = =
} } }
) ( ) ( ) ( t t g t g
s
T
o =
a
n

b
n

Sampling: Frequency-Domain Analysis (2/2)
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 2 2
( ) ( ) cos( ) ( ) cos(2 ) ( ) cos(3 ) .
s
n
s s s
s s s s
g t g t t nT
g t g t t g t t g t t
T T T T
o
e e e
·
=÷·
= ÷
= + + + +
¿
| | | |
| |
1 1 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( 2 )
1
( 3 ) ( 3 ) .
1
( )
s s s s
s s s
s s
s
s
n
s
G G G G G G
T T T
G G
T
G n
T
e e e e e e e e e e
e e e e
e e
·
=÷·
= + ÷ + + + ÷ + +
+ ÷ + + +
= ÷
¿
Spectrum of Sampled Function
G(e)
+2tB
e
÷2tB e
s
2e
s
÷e
s
÷2e
s
3e
s
÷3e
s
A
G(e)
+2tB
e
÷2tB e
s
2e
s
÷e
s
÷2e
s
3e
s
÷3e
s
A/T
s
... ...
e
s
+2tB e
s
–2tB ÷e
s
+2tB ÷e
s
–2tB
Recovering the Continuous-Time Signal
G(e)
+2tB
e
÷2tB e
s
2e
s
÷e
s
÷2e
s
3e
s
÷3e
s
A/T
s
... ...
e
s
+2tB e
s
–2tB ÷e
s
+2tB ÷e
s
–2tB
LPF for reconstructing the origianl
signal from the sampled signal
Reconstructed Signal
+2tB ÷2tB e
s
2e
s
÷e
s
÷2e
s
3e
s
÷3e
s
A/T
s
T
s
Magnitude of LPF should be Ts to cancel
the scaling factor caused by sampling
e
s
> 2(2tB)  No interference between Images
e
Sampling Theorem
 A baseband signal whose spectrum is band-
limited to B Hz can be reconstructed exactly
(without any error) from its samples taken
uniformly at a rate f
s
≥ 2B.
 f
s
≥ 2B is called Nyquist Criterion of sampling.
 f
s
= 2B is called the Nyquist rate of sampling.
 Does Sampling Theorem Make Sense?


Aliasing








 Sampling a signal at a rate less that the Nyquist rate results in
Aliasing.
 In aliasing, the higher frequency components take the identity of
lower frequencies.
 Real life Example: Sampling a rotating wheel.
G(e)
e
2e
s
4e
s
÷e
s
÷2e
s
÷3e
s
A/T
s
... ...
LPF for reconstructing the origianl
signal from the sampled signal
Reconstructed Signal
A/T
s
T
s
e
s
< 2(2tB)  Interference between images
will occur
e
s
3e
s
÷4e
s
Damaged part of the signal
2e
s
4e
s
÷e
s
÷2e
s
÷3e
s
e
s
3e
s
÷4e
s
e
Time Division Multiplexing
(TDM)
 Multiplexing: The process of
sending two or more signals
together
 FDM: Sending them together at the
same time over different bands
using carrier modulation (AM &
FM broadcasting)
 TDM: Sending them together over
the same band by sampling the
signals and sending the samples at
different time instants
(interleaved).
T
s
g
1
(t)
g
2
(t)
g
3
(t)
T
s
T
s
g
TDM
(t)
T
s
T
s
/3
How to Transmit the Samples?
 Pulse Modulation:
Use the samples to modulate a carrier of pulses
 Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)
 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
 Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)
 Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
 Quantization of samples
 Coding
Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)
T
s
g
PAM
(t)
t
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
T
s
g
PWM
(t)
t
Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)
T
s
g
PPM
(t)
t
[2] Quantization
 Analog samples with an amplitude that may take value
in a specific range are converted to a digital samples
with an amplitude that takes one of a specific pre–
defined set of values.
 The range of possible values of the analog samples is
divide into L levels. L is usually taken to be a power of
2 (L = 2
n
).
 The center value of each level is assigned to any
sample that falls in that quantization interval.
 For almost all samples, the quantized samples will
differ from the original samples by a small amount,
called the quantization error.
Quantization: Illustration
t
4T
s
T
s
3T
s
5T
s
2T
s
0
m
p
–m
p
L = 2
n
L levels
n bits
0
Av
Quantizer Output Samples
q
x
Quantizer Input Samples x
A quantization interval Corresponding quantization value
2
p
m
v
L
A =
Input-Output Characteristics of Quantizer
Av 2Av 3Av 4Av ÷Av ÷2Av ÷3Av ÷4Av
Av/2
3Av/2
5Av/2
7Av/2
÷Av/2
÷3Av/2
÷5Av/2
÷7Av/2
Quantizer
Input x
Quantizer
Output x
q
q
x
x
2m
p
[3] Coding
4T
s
T
s
3T
s
5T
s
2T
s
0
m
p
–m
p
L = 2
n
L levels
n bits
000
001
010
111
PCM Code
n bits/sample
0
Av
Quantizer Output Samples
q
x
Quantizer Input Samples x
A quantization interval Corresponding quantization value
011
100
101
110
001 011 100 110 110 110 100 010 010 010 100 101 101
 We want to scan and send a black-and-white image of
height 11 inches and width 8.5 inches (Letter size paper).
The resolution of the scanner is 600×600 dots per inch
square. The picture will be quantized using 256 levels.
Find the size of the scanned image and the time it takes
to transmit the image using a modem of speed 56 kbps.
 Size of image =
11(in)×8.5(in)×600×600(samples/in
2
)×8bits/sample
= 269280000 bits = 269 Mbits
 Time to transmit = 269280000 / 56,000 = 4808 sec = 80 min

How would 0’s and 1’s be transmitted?
 The simplest form is to send a +ve pulse for a
“1” and a –ve pulse for a “0”.
 Transmitting the message g(t) would translate
into sending a a long sequence of +ve and –ve
pulses.

Nyquist Theorem for Transmission
 Note that the larger the transmission rate
(pulses/sec) the narrower the pulse, the wider
its spectrum, the higher the channel bandwidth
required for transmission.
 The minimum theoretical bandwidth
required to transmit R pulses/sec is R/2 Hz.
(To be demonstrated later)