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Noise in Communication

Systems





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Noise in Communication Systems
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Outline :

Introduction
Thermal Noise
Shot Noise
 Signal - to – Noise
 Noise Factor – Noise Figure
 Noise Temperature
 BER
Student Able to :
• Define noise and describe the prominent
sources of electrical noise
• Explain and calculate the most common types
of noise in communication system
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Learning Outcomes

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Introduction
Noise is the static you hear in the speaker when you tune any AM or FM
receiver to any position between stations. It is also the “snow” or “confetti” that
is visible on a TV screen.
Introduction
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Noise is a general term which is used to describe an “unwanted
signal which affects a wanted signal.”

Noise is a random signal that exists in a communication
system.

Random signal cannot be represented with a simple
equation.



Sources of noise
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Noise
Internal Noise External Noise
Due to random movement of
electrons in electronic circuit.

Electronic components in a
receiver such as resistors,
diodes, and transistors are
major sources of internal noise

• Thermal (agitation) noise
• Shot noise
•Transit time noise
Man-made noise and natural
resources

External noise comes from
sources over which we have little
or no control
•Industrial sources
motors, generators,
manufactured equipment
•Atmospheric sources / static
electricity
speaker when there is no
signal present

Introduction (Cont’d)
• The noise level in a system is proportional to
temperature and bandwidth, the amount of
current flowing in a component, the gain of the
circuit, and the resistance of the circuit.

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Noise Effect
• Degrade system performance for both analog and digital
systems.
• The receiver cannot understand the original signal.
• The receiver cannot function as it should be.
• Reduce the efficiency of communication system.
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Noise - Type of Noise
 The are several types of noise, among them are:
1. Atmospheric
2. Extraterrestrial (Cosmic & Solar)
3. Thermal Noise
4. White Noise
5. Shot Noise
6. Quantization Noise



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Atmospheric Noise (Static)
• Results due to spurious radio waves inducing
voltages at antenna creating spurious
waveforms

• Reasons
• Weather conditions (moisture, lightening and thunder)
• Dominant upto 30 MHz
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Extraterrestrial
• Solar
– Due to radiation from sun

• Cosmic
– Due to radiations from other heavenly bodies
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Industrial
• Created by man due to several reasons
– Line passing near by a transformer
– Interference by other coexisting equipment
– (TV remotes and IR equipments)
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Thermal Noise (Johnson Noise /white noise)
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Thermal noise is the result of the random motion of charged particles
(usually electrons) in a conducting medium such as a resistor.
This type of noise is generated by all resistances (e.g. a resistor,
semiconductor, the resistance of a resonant circuit, i.e. the real part of the
impedance, cable etc).


When the temperature increases the movement of free electrons will
increases and the current flows through the conductor.
Movement of the electrons
will forms kinetic energy in
the conductor related to the
temperature of the
conductor.

Thermal Noise (Johnson Noise) (Cont’d)
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Experimental results (by Johnson) and theoretical studies (by Nyquist) give
the mean square noise voltage as
) ( 4
2
2
_
volt TBR k V =

Where k = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38 x 10
-23
Joules per K
T = absolute temperature (Kelvin)
B = bandwidth noise measured in (Hz)
R = resistance (ohms)
Thermal Noise (Johnson Noise)
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For example :

50 kΩ resistor at a temperature of 290 K, 3 kHz bandwidth. Find V
rms

value of noise:
from Kelvin to Kelvin
Celsius [°C] = [K] − 273.15 [K] = [°C] + 273.15
Fahrenheit [°F] = [K] ×
9

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− 459.67 [K] = ([°F] + 459.67) ×
5

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Vn = √ 4 x 1.38 x 10-23 x 290 x 3000 x 50

= 49 nV
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Example 1.4
One operational amplifier with a frequency range of (18-20) MHz has
input resistance 10 kO. Calculate noise voltage at the input if the
amplifier operate at ambient temperature of 27
0
C.
V
n
2
= 4KTBR
= 4 x 1.38 x 10
-23
x (273+ 27) x 2 x 10
6
x 10
4
V
n
= 18 µvolt
Analysis of Noise In Communication Systems
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Thermal Noise (Johnson noise)
This thermal noise may be represented by an equivalent circuit as shown below
) ( 4
2
____
2
volt TBR k V =
____
2
V n
V kTBR = = 2
(mean square value , power)
then V
RMS
=
i.e. V
n
is the RMS noise voltage.
Analysis of Noise In Communication Systems (Cont’d)
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2
2
___
2
1
___
____
2
n n
n
V V V + =
1 1
____
2
1
4 R B T k V
n
=
2 2
____
2
2
4 R B T k V
n
=
) ( 4
2 2 1 1
____
2
R T R T B k V
n
+ =
) ( 4
2 1
____
2
R R B kT V
n
+ =
Assume that R
1
at
temperature T
1
and R
2
at
temperature T
2,
then

i.e. The resistor in series at same temperature behave as a
single resistor
Resistors in Series


Shot Noise
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•Shot noise is a type of electronic noise that occurs when the finite
number of particles that carry energy, such as electrons in an electronic
circuit or photons in an optical device

• Shot noise was originally used to describe noise due to random
fluctuations in electron emission from cathodes in vacuum tubes
(called shot noise by analogy with lead shot).

• Shot noise also occurs in semiconductors due to the release of charge
carriers.

• Shot noise is found to have a uniform spectral density as for thermal
noise (White noise)
How to determine noise level in communication
system?
• Noise effect can be determined by measuring:
- Signal to Noise Ratio, SNR for analog system
- Noise Factor, F
- Noise Temperature, T
e
.
- probability of error or bit error rate, BER for digital system

• To determine the quality of received signal at the receiver or an antenna,
SNR
i
is used.

• SNR
o
is always less than SNR
i
, due to the facts that the existence of
noise in the receiver itself. In the receiver usually constitute a process of
filtering, demodulation and amplification.
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Noise Calculation
• SNR is a ratio of signal power, S to noise power, N.



• Noise Figure, F



• Noise factor, NF
dB
N
S
SNR log 10 =
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dB
N S
N S
F NF
o o
i i
log 10
log 10
=
=
o o
i i
N S
N S
F =
dB
Signal to Noise
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) ( ,
) ( ,
watts Pn Power Noise
watts Ps Power Signal
N
S
=
The signal to noise ratio is given by

The signal to noise in dB is expressed by


dBm dBm dB
N S
N
S
÷ =
|
.
|

\
|
for S and N measured in mW.
dB
N
S
N
S
10
log 10 =
• Example :
For an amplifier with an output signal power of 10 W and an
output noise power of 0.01 w, determine the signal to noise
power ratio
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Signal to Noise
• Solution :


To express in dB;


1000
01 . 0
10
= = =
Pn
Ps
N
S
dB
N
S
N
S
dB
30
01 . 0
10
log 10 log 10
10
= =
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
• Example :
For an amplifier with an output signal voltage of 4V, an output noise
voltage of 0.005 V, and an input and output resistance of 50 ohm, determine
the signal to noise power ratio.

Solution :

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Signal to Noise
dB
V
V
N
S
n
s
dB
06 . 58
005 . 0
4
log 20 log 20
10
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
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Noise Factor- Noise Figure (Cont’d)
Noise factor, F =
( )
( )
OUT
IN
N
S
N
S
• F equals to 1 for noiseless and in general F > 1.

lower the value of F, the better the network.
Consider the network shown below,
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Noise Factor- Noise Figure (Cont’d)
Noise figure (NF) is the Noise factor converted to dB





Noise Figure (NF) dB = 10 log
10
(F)
NF = SNR
in
− SNR
out

If every variable is a dB Noise figure;
Noise Temperature
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Noise temperature (Te) is expressed as :


Where;
Te = equivalent noise temperature (Kelvin)
T = environmental temperature (reference value of 290 K)
F = Noise factor

Te = T(F-1)
Equivalent noise temperature T
e
is not the physical temperature
of the amplifier, but rather a theoretical construct that is an
equivalent temperature that produces that amount of noise power
Transmission Loss
Transmission Medium Frequency Loss dB/km
Kabel Terpiuh (Twisted-
pair Cable)
10kHz
100kHz
300kHz
2
3
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Kabel Sepaksi (Coaxial
Cable)
100kHz
1MHz
3MHz
1
2
4
Pandu Gelombang
Empat Segi (Rectangular
Waveguide)

10GHz

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Kabel Fiber Optik (Fiber
Optic Cable)
3.6 x 10
14
Hz
2.4 x 10
14
Hz
1.8 x 10
14
Hz
2.5
0.5
0.2
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What is Error Rate?

• The error rate is the degree of errors in the
transmission of data due to bad hardware or
noisy links. The higher the error rate the less
reliable the connection or data transfer will
be.
• It occurred in digital communication.


BER = The number of erroneous bits received
total number of bits transmitted

Noise - Bit Energy
The signal also measured in terms of the bit energy in
joules (J), E
b
.
The enery per bit is simply the energy of a single bit
of information, E
b
.

It is defined as below:



E
b
= energy of a single bit (joules per bit)
T
b
= time of a single bit (seconds)
C = carrier power (watts)
E
b
= CT
b
(J/bit)
Summary
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• Thermal Noise


• Signal - to – Noise


• Noise Factor


• Noise Figure


• Noise Temperature

) ( 4
2
2
_
volt TBR k V =
) ( ,
) ( ,
watts Pn Power Noise
watts Ps Power Signal
N
S
=
( )
( )
OUT
IN
N
S
N
S
Noise Figure (NF) dB = 10 log10 (F)
Te = T(F-1)