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Multiple Access Techniques & Spread Spectrum

Kashif Shahzad

Preston University

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Today’s Class
 Multiple Access Techniques
 Spread Spectrum in detail

Kashif Shahzad

Preston University

072

Time

Frequency

FDMA

MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNIQUES

Time

Frequency

TDMA

Time

Frequency

CDMA

Question
 The EM spectrum is a limited resource
 How can we “share” it?
 Time  Space  Frequency  Polarization  Spread Spectrum - use a wider bandwidth?
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Kashif Shahzad

Preston University

Multiple Access techniques
 Goal

allow many users to simultaneously share a communications resource

    

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Polarization Division Multiple Access (PDMA) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
 aka Spread Spectrum
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 separate the signals at the receiver to extract

Key Issue

your information Two methods
 Do not mix the signals in the first place
 can use space or time (SDMA or TDMA)

 Use distinctive properties of each signal as a means to identify
 Frequency spectrum (FDMA)
 Polarization of waves (PDMA)  code sequence attached to each message (CDMA)
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TDMA Illustration
 Divides the radio spectrum into time slots, and in each slot only one user is allowed to either transmit or receive

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Preston University

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TDMA Details
 The incoming data from each source are briefly

buffered and scanned to to form a composite digital data stream mc ( t ) .
m1 ( t ) m2 ( t )

U1 U2

Buffer Buffer Frame mc ( t )
preamble preamble

Frame

1 2

N

...

1 2
Time slot

N

UN

mN ( t )

Buffer
Scan operation

information

Each slot may be empty or occupied. + has preamble & guard bits 07Kashif Shahzad Preston University 8

TDMA Pros and Cons
Advantages  flexible bit rate
 channels may have

Disadvantages  Synchronization
 must lock on to your time

slot (signal processing)

varying data rates

 Overhead
 processing required for

 efficient use of channels

buffering...

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Preston University

079

SDMA

Space Division Multiple Access  Use highly directional Ae
 The receiver selects the beam that provides the greatest

signal enhancement and interference reduction
 Smart antenna systems

can adjust their antenna pattern to enhance the desired signal, null or reduce interference.
Desired Signal Direction

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Preston University

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SDMA Pros and Cons
Advantages  BW increases with km2
 Simple system

Disadvantages  Restricted Geometry
 terminals in same direction

cannot share

 May have unused BW
 if no terminals in given

zone, bw not used

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Preston University

0711

FDMA Illustration
 assigns individual channels or bands to individual users, which can only be used by that user for the period of the call

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Preston University

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FDMA Pros and Cons
Advantages  Simple to implement Disadvantages  Nonlinear Effects
 sharing of Ae causes

spreading at saturation

 Continuous tx
minimal overhead bits

 Inefficient
 once assigned, cannot be

reassigned even if not in use

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Preston University

0713

SPREAD SPECTRUM
CDMA - FHMA - DSMA - SSMA

 The transmission bandwidth must be much

Definition - Spread Spectrum
larger than the information bandwidth

 The resulting RF bandwidth is determined by a

function other than the information being sent

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Preston University

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Spread Spectrum - illustrated
Power Density Conventional Transmission

PDi

same total power
Spread Spectrum Transmission

PDSS Bi

f

BSS

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Preston University

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 Two main methods
 Frequency Hopped Multiple Access (FHMA)

How

 Direct Sequence Multiple Access (DSMA)
 THMA does exist, but not common

 Both depend on pseudo random orthogonal codes remember part 2 of definition...  often called pseudo noise

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Preston University

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FHSS

Frequency Hopping Multiple Access

 message is "cut" into small "chunks"  Each chunk is modulated by a different fc
(determined by pseudo-random code)

 A band pass filter accepts the signals that follow

the hopping sequence and rejects all other requires
synchronization

 note - some early systems used short

predictable patterns
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Kashif Shahzad

Preston University

FHSS - illustrated
Frequency

Frequency Hop Tune Time Dwell Time

Time
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DSMA

Direct Sequence Multiple Access

 Each bit is “chipped”  Example - time domain
0.1 ms

Data

1 bit
0.1 s

Chips
1000 chips
Requires much wider bandwidth
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Cross Correlation
 Mathematical process used to determine the similarity between two signals

15-bit Code Received Signal Modulo-2 sum

111101011001000 011110101100100
100011110101100

Correlation = -1/15 (very poor)

Used for despreading

to determine start of code to lock onto correct code
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 Different sequences are said to be orthogonal

Pseudo Random Orthogonal...
low cross correlation)

if they do not interfere with one another (ie have
 A sequence is pseudo random if it is

orthogonal with a time shifted version of itself
 note - this significantly reduces the number of

codes available << 2 n -1

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Preston University

0722

Spreading Process
Info

Noise Info Signal

Baseband Signal
Before spreading

Transmitted (Coded) Signal

After spreading

How can you recover signal < noise
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 The ratio of the ‘SNR out’ to the ‘SNR into’ the

SNR gain of spread spectrum
demodulator ( spreading factor).

GP =

SNRout SNRin

=

BWRF Rinfo

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Preston University

0724

CDMA Pros and Cons
Advantages  security  channel capacity
 4xTDMA, 20xFDMA

Disadvantages  self jamming  near far problem
 power issues

 One channel for all  < fading in wideband  LPE, LPI, LPD
 low probability of exploitation interception detection
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Final
 Most modern systems use a combination of TDMA, SDMA, FDMA, CDMA…  Take advantage of best features of each

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Preston University

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Comparison SDMA/TDMA/FDMA/CDMA
Approach Idea SDMA
segment space into cells/sectors

TDMA

FDMA

CDMA
spread the spectrum using orthogonal codes

Terminals

only one terminal can be active in one cell/one sector cell structure, directed antennas

Signal separation

segment sending segment the time into disjoint frequency band into time slots, demand disjoint sub bands driven or fixed patterns all terminals are every terminal has its active for short own frequency, periods of time on uninterrupted the same frequency synchronization in filtering in the the time domain frequency domain simple, established, robust inflexible, frequencies are a scarce resource

all terminals can be active at the same place at the same moment, uninterrupted code plus special receivers flexible, less frequency planning needed, soft handover complex receivers, needs more complicated power control for senders

Advantages very simple, increases established, fully
capacity per km² digital, flexible inflexible, antennas Disadvantages typically fixed guard space needed (multipath propagation), synchronization difficult standard in fixed networks, together with FDMA/SDMA used in many mobile networks

Comment

only in combination with TDMA, FDMA or CDMA useful

typically combined with TDMA (frequency hopping patterns) and SDMA (frequency reuse)

still faces some problems, higher complexity, lowered expectations; will be integrated with TDMA/FDMA
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From: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, http://www.jochenschiller.de/ MC SS02 Kashif Shahzad Preston University