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AM 211 Fire Protection

5 Days /6hrs

Twenty percent of the 1153 fatalities on U.S. transport airlines between 1981-1990 were caused by fire

Quickie in Electricity

The planetary model of the atom

Sources of Electricity
• • • • • 1.Chemical ex. Battery 2.Heat/Thermal ex. Thermocouple 3.Pressure/Piezoelectric ex. Quartz 4.Light ex. Selenium/Photo emissive 5.Magnetism ex. Generators

• Back to the Regulations…….. • Define the following per FAR part 1: • -Fire Proof • -Fire Resistance • -Flame Resistance • -Flammable • -Flash Resistant • -What are the requirements for aircraft upholstery per FAR part 23?

Fire Zones
(By airflow) -Class A Zoneshaped objects large volume of air over/threw similarly

-Class B Zone- large volume of air over/threw
aerodynamically clean objects

-Class C Zone- low airflow -Class D Zone- little to no airflow -Class X Zone- large quantity of turbulent air (Very difficult to
extinguish fires in these areas)

Requirements for Overheat & Fire Detection Systems
• • • • • • • • -prevent false warnings -rapid and accurate indication -indicate the fire was extinguished -automatically reset/ indicate re-ignition -continuous indication -testable -resist exposure -indication by a light of location and audible alarm • -separate sensing elements for each engine

MD-11

Fire Detection and Overheat Systems
• Spot Type
Individual switches or detectors
-Thermo-switch -Thermocouple

• Continuous Loop
Single detection element

- Pneumatic (gas) - Thermo-resistive switch

Thermocouples

Cylinder Head Temp Thermocouple

Thermocouples for Fire Detection
-Rate of Rise Spot Detector made of two dissimilar metals that produce a small current (about 4ma) when heated. - Components :

- Reference thermocouple
- Active thermocouple - Sensitive relay - Slave relay - Heater (for the test circuit) - Visual and oral warning

Continuous Loop Systems
• All continuous loop systems have a single sensing element but vary in construction • Thermal-Resistive Loops
• •
• • •

Fenwal system Kidde system
Lindberg system Systron-Donner System (Whittaker) Meggitt System

• Pneumatic (gas) Loops

Fenwal

Kidde

Pneumatic Systems
• Recall from Physics:

-As a gas is heated, if the volume remains the same, the pressure will increase proportionally.

Inspections

Jetcal Analyzer

Smoke and Toxic Gas

Typical Installation

Fire Extinguishing Systems
• Agents • -Halon (*1301 & 1211) • -Carbon Dioxide • Systems • -Portable • -Fixed • -conventional • -high rate of discharge (HRD)

Halon & HRD Systems
• The most commonly used agent for aircraft is Halon 1301 (bromotrifluoromethane CF3Br) • Halon Production was banned in 1998 due to the environmental impact. Halon destroys ozone O3. • Halon eliminates fire by displacing oxygen and may do the same in your lungs in confined areas.

Squib Cartridge

Alternatives to Halon
• Many manufactures are struggling to replace Halon with an equally effective , non-corrosive, safe agent.
• • • • Hydro-clean agents FE-25 by DuPont Phosphorous tribromide (PBr3) PhostrEx And many more……

Boeing 727

• 727 Fire Control Panel