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COMPUTER FOR EXECUTIVES

Microsoft Excel


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Excel is a computerized spreadsheet, which is an important business tool that helps you report and analyze information. Excel applications are designed to ease the management of numbers and calculations. Various menu commands and buttons make it easy to arrange and format columns of numbers and to calculate totals, averages, percentages, budgets, and complex financial and scientific formulas. Excel stores spreadsheets in documents called workbooks. or The basic document for Excel is called Workbook. Its filename uses the extension xls, from Excel spreadsheet.

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Microsoft Excel
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A workbook usually contains several worksheets or sheets. All sorts of calculations can be made in the Excel spreadsheet, it is much more flexible than a paper spreadsheet. Spreadsheet A single sheet of data. One or more worksheets make a workbook. Think of them as pieces of paper that are stacked on top of each other to form the workbook. The Excel window has some basic components, such as an Active cell, Column headings, a Formula bar, a Name box, the mouse pointer, Row headings, Sheet tabs, a Task Pane, Tab scrolling buttons and Toolbars.

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A Sample Excel Worksheet

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Identify Excel Components

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Descriptions Of Excel Components Abdus Salam 6 .

column XFD (16384) and row 1048576 on Excel 2007 Abdus Salam 7 . The default workbook can have up to 255 worksheets. AC.536. C. Rows Named with numbers from 1 to 65. BA.…Z. AA.Descriptions Of Excel Components  (Cont’d)         The maximum number of worksheets in a workbook depends on your computer's memory. BC. IB. which is the last possible column.…IV. Workspace The area below the toolbars that holds your documents The default workbook is named Book1. Sheet2. CA.…IA.…AZ. named Sheet1. Columns Named with letters in the following pattern: A. BB. AB.…BZ. It contains three worksheets. Sheet3. B.

Navigate between worksheets  To move to other Worksheets. you can:  Click their tab with the mouse  Use the Ctrl key with the Page Up and Page Down keys to move sequentially up or down through the worksheets Abdus Salam 8 .

Test the worksheet and make any necessary edits / corrections. Document the worksheet and improve appearance. Abdus Salam 9 . Enter the data and formulas.Developing a Worksheet      Determine the worksheet’s purpose. Save and print the complete worksheet.

or ENTER key to navigate among the cells.) into the active cell. dates. arrow keys. Use the Alt+Enter key combination to enter text on multiple lines within the same cell. Enter the data (text. Use TAB key. formulas. first make the cell in which you want to enter the data active by clicking it. Abdus Salam 10 . etc.Entering Data into a Worksheet     To enter data.

Entries containing a mix of letters and numbers are always treated as text. Text entries include any letters. numbers and symbols on the keyboard. Changing the column width may affect how much of the entry can be seen.000 characters may be entered as text in a single cell. A formatting option allows text to word wrap onto multiple lines within the width of a column. which has a value of 0 (zero) if used in a calculation. and up to 32. If text is wider than the column it is entered into it will overflow onto the adjacent cell if it is blank. otherwise the text will appear truncated. Abdus Salam 11 . with a corresponding increase in the height of the row.Types of Data       Text Text is also referred to as Labels because it is often used to identify the information entered in columns or rows.

Numbers can be formatted to display in any required manner by using the formatting commands. The number displays correctly when the column is wide enough. for example with or without currency symbols. with as many decimal places as required. Abdus Salam 12 . Numbers that contain too many digits for the width of the column are displayed as hash symbols (####).Types of Data   (Cont’d)   Values Values are usually number entries and used in calculations on the sheet. Numbers can be formatted to appear in different ways.

Dates can be displayed in a variety of more familiar looking styles depending on how they are formatted. Abdus Salam 13 . Excel counts dates as the number of days from January 1st 1900. For example. and stores the date as a number. The table below gives you some examples of different date formats.Types of Data       (Cont’d) Dates Dates are values that can be used in calculations to create new dates or calculate time intervals. 1st May 2000 is stored as 36647.

Abdus Salam 14 . or be used to transfer data around the sheet. but it is more effective to enter the values onto the sheet and refer to those cells in the formula. The values can be entered directly into the formula. specialized functions such as averaging or totaling. Formulae can include arithmetic functions. Formulae may be very simple or extremely complex and the result may be a number.Types of Data   (Cont’d)    Formula Formula are the instructions that perform calculations on the sheet. a date or a message. A formula begins with an equal sign (=) followed by one or more values to calculate.

In Excel.Entering Formulas     A formula is a mathematical expression that calculates a value. The order of precedence is a set of predefined rules that Excel follows to calculate a formula. Abdus Salam 15 . A formula can consist of one or more arithmetic operators. formulas always begin with an equal sign (=).

Order of Precedence Rules Abdus Salam 16 .

Resize Worksheet Rows And Columns   There are a number of methods for altering row height and column width using the mouse or menus:  Click the dividing line on the column or row. Abdus Salam 17 . and drag the dividing line to change the width of the column or height of the row  Double-click the border of a column heading. and the column will increase in width to match the length of the longest entry in the column Widths are expressed either in terms of the number of characters or the number of screen pixels.

Ranges can be adjacent or nonadjacent. begin by selecting an adjacent range. then press and hold down the Ctrl key as you select other adjacent ranges Abdus Salam 18 .Identify Cell Ranges    A group of worksheet cells is known as a cell range.  An adjacent range is a single. Working with ranges in a worksheet makes working with the data easier. or range. rectangular block of cells  Select an adjacent range by clicking on a cell and dragging to an opposite corner of a rectangle of cells  A nonadjacent range is comprised of two or more adjacent ranges that are not contiguous to each other  To select a nonadjacent range.

Excel will leave the original selection in its place and paste a copy of the selection in the new location. use the Alt key while dragging the selection. By pressing and holding the Ctrl key as you drag. press and hold the Shift key. Once you have selected a range of cells. Abdus Salam 19 .Select And Move Worksheet Cells     To select a large area of cells. select the first cell in the range. To move between workbooks. you may move the cells within the worksheet by clicking and dragging the selection from its current location to its new one. and then click the last cell in the range.

Adjacent And Nonadjacent Ranges Abdus Salam 20 .

Range selection techniques Abdus Salam 21 .

Moving Selected Cell Ranges Abdus Salam 22 .

or right click on a row or column heading or a selection of cells and then choose Insert from the shortcut menu. You can click the Insert menu and then select row or column. You can insert individual cells within a row or column and then choose how to displace the existing cells.Insert worksheet rows and columns    You can insert one or many additional rows or columns within a worksheet with just a few steps using the mouse or menu options. Abdus Salam 23 .

rows. Clearing.Delete Worksheet Rows And Columns    To delete and clear cells. Abdus Salam 24 . or right click on a heading or a selection of cells and choose Delete from the shortcut menu. does not alter the structure of the worksheet or shift uncleared data cells. you can use the Edit menu. or columns. as opposed to deleting. but it does not remove them from the worksheet as you might expect. What can be confusing about this process is that you can use the Delete key to clear cells.

Move. copy and work with worksheets. delete or rename a worksheet.Insert. Select a new position in the workbook for the worksheet or click the Create a copy checkbox and Excel will paste a copy of that worksheet in the workbook. you peruse through them like you flip the pages of a book. And Rename Worksheets     Worksheets are much like pages within a book. There are several ways to move. Abdus Salam 25 . The same shortcut menu for the sheet tab also gives you the option to insert. Right click on the sheet tab and choose Move or Copy.

The Print dialog box Abdus Salam 26 .

References to cells in other workbooks are called links. These letters and numbers are called row and column headings. For example.Reference Cell      A reference identifies a cell or a range of cells on a worksheet and tells Microsoft Excel where to look for the values or data you want to use in a formula. and to other workbooks. which refers to columns with letters (A through IV. To refer to a cell. you can use data contained in different parts of a worksheet in one formula or use the value from one cell in several formulas. Abdus Salam 27 . B2 refers to the cell at the intersection of column B and row 2. for a total of 256 columns) and refers to rows with numbers (1 through 65536). With references. enter the column letter followed by the row number. You can also refer to cells on other sheets in the same workbook. Excel uses the A1 reference style. The A1 reference style By default.

In the following example. Link to another worksheet in the same workbook Note that the name of the worksheet and an exclamation point (!) precede the range reference.Reference Cell    Reference to another worksheet. the AVERAGE worksheet function calculates the average value for the range B1:B10 on the worksheet named Marketing in the same workbook. Abdus Salam 28 .

Reference Cell To refer to The cell in column A and row 10 The range of cells in column A and rows 10 through 20 The range of cells in row 15 and columns B through E All cells in row 5 All cells in rows 5 through 10 All cells in column H All cells in columns H through J The range of cells in columns A through E and rows 10 through 20 Abdus Salam (Cont’d) Use A10 A10:A20 B15:E15 5:5 5:10 H:H H:J A10:E20 29 .

it automatically adjusts from =A1 to =A2. is based on the relative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell the reference refers to.Relative Reference & Absolute Reference   Relative references A relative cell reference in a formula. such as A1. if you copy a relative reference in cell B2 to cell B3. the reference automatically adjusts. If you copy the formula across rows or down columns. By default. the reference is changed. For example. Copied formula with relative reference Abdus Salam 30 . If the position of the cell that contains the formula changes. new formulas use relative references.

if you copy a absolute reference in cell B2 to cell B3.Relative Reference & Absolute Reference   Absolute references An absolute cell reference in a formula. If the position of the cell that contains the formula changes. it stays the same in both cells =$A$1. new formulas use relative references. such as $A$1. and you need to switch them to absolute references. the absolute reference does not adjust. If you copy the formula across rows or down columns. the absolute reference remains the same. By default. For example. Copied formula with absolute reference Abdus Salam 31 . always refer to a cell in a specific location.

parentheses. text.  The syntax specifies the order in which you must enter the different parts of the function and the location in which you must insert commas. A function is a predefined. or cell references used by the function to calculate a value  Some arguments are optional Abdus Salam 32 . Each Excel function has a name and syntax. formula for a commonly used calculation. and other punctuation  Arguments are numbers. or built-in.Use Excel’s Functions    You can easily calculate the sum of a large number of cells by using a function.

and Statistical functions You can use the Insert Function button on the Formula bar to select from a list of functions. Engineering.Work with the Insert Function button    Excel supplies more than 350 functions organized into 10 categories:  Database. A series of dialog boxes will assist you in filling in the arguments of the function and this process also enforces the use of proper syntax. Logical. Text and Data. Abdus Salam 33 . Information. Date and Time. Math. Financial. Lookup.

Math and Statistical Functions Abdus Salam 34 .

 This expression would first compute the average of all the values from cell A1 through A100 and then round that result to 1 digit to the right of the decimal point Abdus Salam 35 .Define Functions. Consider the expression =ROUND(AVERAGE(A1:A100). You can also use functions within functions.1). but that method would be cumbersome if there were 100 cells to add up. A basic formula example to add up a small number of cells is =A1+A2+A3+A4. And Functions Within Functions     The SUM function is a very commonly used math function in Excel. Use Excel's SUM function to total the values in a range of cells like this: SUM(A1:A100).

but highly effective means for quickly filling out a large worksheet. press the Esc key to deselect the selection Abdus Salam 36 . To copy and paste a cell or range:  Select the cell or range to be copied and then click the Copy button on the standard toolbar  Select the cell or range into which you want to copy the selection and then click the Paste button on the standard toolbar  Once you are finished pasting.Copy and paste Formulas and Functions   Copying and pasting a cell or range of cells is a simple.

and you copy and paste this formula to cell G6.Copy And Paste Effects On Cell References     Copied formulas or functions that have cell references are adjusted for the target cell or range of cells. if cell G5 contains the formula =F5*B5/B7. the formula in cell G6 will be =F6*B6/B8. This may or may not be correct for your worksheet. You can control this automatic adjusting of cell references through the use of relative and absolute references. For example. depending upon what you are trying to do. Abdus Salam 37 .

it uses a string of these # symbols to represent that value. cells B5 and B7 should be referenced in the formula in column G in all 240 payment period rows. You can control this result using relative and absolute references. For example. Cell G5 has the formula =F5*B5/B7 and cell G6 contains =F6*B6/B8. This is where things went wrong. In this case. Abdus Salam 38 . the formula in cell J5 is =F5-(H5+I5) and this was pasted into cell J6 by updating the cell references there to =F6-(H6+I6). Sometimes this automatic update is very useful and other times it does not give you the desired result for your worksheet.Problems Using Copy And Paste With Formulas     When Excel does not have enough room to display an entire value in a cell. you want the cell references to be automatically updated. but in column J.

Abdus Salam 39 . a relative reference to cell B5 in the source cell would become G8 in the destination cell. If you copy a formula to a cell three rows down and five columns to the right. A relative reference changes in relation to the change of location.Use relative references    A relative reference is a cell reference that shifts when you copy it to a new location on a worksheet.

For example. This cell reference would stay the same no matter where you copied the formula. To create an absolute reference. Abdus Salam 40 . you preface the column and row designations with a dollar sign ($).Use absolute references     An absolute reference is a cell reference that does not change when you copy the formula to a new location. the absolute reference for B5 would be $B$5.

but the row reference would not You can switch between absolute. relative and mixed references in the formula easily in the edit mode or on the formula bar by selecting the cell reference in your formula and then pressing the F4 key repeatedly to toggle through the reference options.  For example. the row reference would shift.Use Mixed References    A mixed reference combines both relative and absolute cell references. You can effectively lock either the row or the column in a mixed reference. but the column reference would not  In the case of B$5. in the case of $B5. Abdus Salam 41 . the column reference would shift.

Click the Insert Function button. If you do not see the Insert Function button. first click the cell in which you wish to insert the function. you may need to select the appropriate toolbar or add the button to an existing toolbar.Open the Insert Function dialog box    To get help from Excel to insert a function. This action will open the Insert Function dialog box. Abdus Salam 42 .

Examine The Insert Function Dialog Box Abdus Salam 43 .

another dialog box shows you all the arguments for the function. You may also select a category from the drop-down box. and Excel will come up with some suggestions for you. saving you the trouble of typing it Abdus Salam 44 .Insert Function helpful tips    In the Insert Function dialog box you can type in a description of what you would like to do in the Search for a function text box and then click the Go button. you can either enter a value or click a cell and that cell will appear in the text box. Once you make your selection and click the OK button. which will list every function in Excel alphabetically. or choose All.  The arguments shown in boldfaced type are required  While the cursor is in an argument's text box.

Abdus Salam 45 . the average function may be copied across cells. Like any other formula.The Average Function   The average function is necessary to calculate the average of a range of cells.

The fill handle is a small black square located in the lower-right corner of a selected cell or range. When you drag the fill handle. Abdus Salam 46 . you can use a technique called Auto Fill using the fill handle.Use Excel's Auto Fill features     When you need to copy and paste a large number of rows or columns. absolute. The same rules for relative. Excel automatically fills in the formulas and formats used in the selected cells. and mixed references apply for Auto Fill as for copy and paste.

Auto Fill features    The Fill behavior depends on the date(s) with which you start. Abdus Salam 47 .  Common options are Copy Cells. Fill Formatting Only and Fill Without Formatting If you are using the Auto Fill technique for dates. Fill Months or Fill Years. When you drag the fill handle. Excel will increment the dates by one day only. you have additional options to either Fill Days. Fill Series. Fill Weekdays. a small Auto Fill Options button appears to the lower right of the selected cell or range.  If you select only one date. then Excel will increment the auto filled dates by a month as well.  If you select two or more dates separated by a month.

Abdus Salam 48 . select the cell range that contains the values and/or formulas you want to copy. Click and drag the fill handle in the direction you want to copy and then release the mouse button.Using Auto Fill    To use the Auto Fill feature. click the Auto Fill Options button. and then select the Auto Fill option you want to apply to the selected range. If needed.

Abdus Salam 49 .Auto Fill Options button menu options    The Copy Cells option will copy all values and formulas into the selected range as well as the formats used to display those values and formulas. The Fill Without Formatting option copies only the values and formulas without any of the formats used in the source range. The Fill Formatting Only option copies only the formats used to display values or formulas without copying the values and formulas themselves.

Date Functions Abdus Salam 50 .

NOW. This method of storing dates allows you to work with dates the same way you work with numbers.  For example. Excel's commonly used date functions are DATE. Abdus Salam 51 . TODAY. where the integer value represents the number of days since January 1. DAY. 2008 is 39448 because that date is 39. because Excel automatically formats them to appear in a date format. 1900.448 days after January 1. 1900 You typically do not see these numbers.Excel's Date Functions     Excel stores dates as integers. the integer value for the date January 1. MONTH. WEEKDAY and YEAR.

If you use the TODAY or NOW function in a cell. the date in the cell is updated to reflect the current date and time of your computer each time you open the workbook.The TODAY and Now functions    The TODAY and NOW functions always display the current date and time. You will not normally see the time portion unless you have formatted the cell to display it. Abdus Salam 52 .

IPMT.Excel's Financial Functions    Financial functions are very useful to calculate information about loans. value Abdus Salam 53 . or unknown. PPMT and PV.  Think of the arguments as members of an equation  The arguments represent the values of the equation that are known and the function provides the solution for a single variable. Common functions are FV. All these financial functions will use similar arguments that differ based upon which function you are using. PMT.

The PPMT function calculates just the principal payment portion of the overall periodic payment. The PV function calculates the present value of an investment. Abdus Salam 54 . The IPMT function provides the interest payment portion of the overall periodic loan payment.Use The Financial Functions      The FV function calculates the future value of an investment based on periodic. The PMT function calculates the entire periodic payment of the loan. constant payments and a constant interest rate per period.

Financial Function descriptions Abdus Salam 55 .

For some of the functions.Recognize Optional Arguments    In the preceding figure. if no others are supplied. note how rate and nper are arguments for each function.  For example. so you must supply values or cell references in order for the function to be able to return a value. meaning if you do not enter anything. the final two arguments of each function are in brackets. note the PMT function has fv and type as its final two arguments. The assumed values. These represent optional arguments. the default values for these arguments will be used. which are optional. Abdus Salam 56 . are 0 for both Arguments without brackets do not have default values.

Use the Insert Function dialog box to enter function arguments Abdus Salam 57 .

A very common function is the IF function. >. OR and TRUE.Create Logical Functions     A function that determines whether a condition is true or false is called a logical function. IF. if one is greater than the other. and then returns one value if true or another value if false. >=. NOT. The comparison operators are =. <=. not equal. and so forth. which uses a logical test to determine whether an expression is true or false. <. and <> Abdus Salam 58 .   You can also make comparisons with text strings. You must enclose text strings within quotation marks. FALSE. The logical test is constructed using a comparison operator that compares two expressions to determine if they are equal. Excel supports several logical functions such as AND.

simply fill in the arguments.20. Abdus Salam 59 .30) tests whether the value in cell A1 is equal to 10  If it is. then click OK. the function returns the value 20. the function =IF(A1=10. therefore.value_if_false)  For example. When the Function Arguments dialog box appears.Using The If Function    The arguments for the IF function are:  IF(logical_test. otherwise the function returns the value 30  Cell A1 could be empty or contain anything else besides the value 10 and the logical test would be false. click the Insert Function button and search for the IF function. the function returns the value 30 To insert an IF function.value_if_true.